TEENS AND ALCOHOL

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See also: CAMY (Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth Study)
See also: CAR--Children of Alcoholics
See also: CASA
See also: Prevention
See also: Reducing Underage Drinking
See also: Teen Brain and Alcohol
See also: Women and Alcohol
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NIH study: Research-based strategies help reduce underage drinking

Alcohol Cost Calculator for Kids - takes information you enter abut your community or group and, based on statistical likelihood, produces a rich report about the variety of costs incurred from teen drinking. http://www.alcoholcostscalculator.org/kids

"The Surgeon General's call to action to prevent and reduce underage drinking", U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2007. "Alcohol is the most widely used substance of abuse among America's youth. A higher percentage of young people between the ages of 12 and 20 use alcohol than use tobacco or illicit drugs. The physical consequences of underage alcohol use range from medical problems to death by alcohol poisoning, and alcohol plays a significant role in risky sexual behavior, physical and sexual assaults, various types of injuries, and suicide. Underage drinking also creates secondhand effects for others, drinkers and nondrinkers alike, including car crashes from drunk driving, that put ever child at risk. Underage alcohol consumption is a major societal problem with enormous health and safety consequences and sill demand the Nation's attention and committed efforts to solve."

Underage Drinking Research Iniative
http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/research/major-initiatives/underage-drinking-research-initiative

The Cool Spot (for Middle Schoolers)
http://www.thecoolspot.gov/

"Underage drinking why do adolescents drink, what are the risks, and how can underage drinking be prevented?," Alcohol Alert , 67, January 2006. Alcohol is the drug of choice among youth. Many young people are experiencing the consequences of drinking too much, at too early an age. As a result, underage drinking is a leading public health problem in this country.
http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AA67/AA67.htm

Adults most common source of alcohol for teens, according to poll of teens 13-18. The poll of teens, aged 13-18, found that nearly half reported having obtained alcohol at some point. In all age groups, girls nearly always ranked higher than boys in obtaining alcohol. In the adult poll, about one out of four U.S. parents with children, aged 12-20 (26 percent), agree that teens should be able to drink at home with their parents present.
http://www.alcoholpolicymd.com/press_room/Press_releases/adults_give_youth_alcohol.htm

Signals of Teen Substance Abuse Risk
The more sexually active friends a teen has and the more time a teen spends with a boyfriend or girlfriend, the greater the risk that teen will smoke, drink, get drunk or use illicit drugs, according to the NATIONAL SURVEY OF AMERICAN ATTITUDES ON SUBSTANCE ABUSE IX: TEEN DATING PRACTICES AND SEXUAL ACTIVITY.

The CASA survey found:
Compared to teens with no sexually active friends, teens who report half or more of their friends are sexually active are more than six and one-half times likelier to drink; 31 times likelier to get drunk; 22.5 times likelier to have tried marijuana; and more than five and one-half times likelier to smoke.

Teens who spend 25 or more hours a week with a boyfriend/girlfriend are two and one-half times likelier to drink; five times likelier to get drunk; 4.5 times likelier to have tried marijuana; and more than 2.5 time likelier to smoke than teens who spend less than 10 hours a week with a boyfriend/girlfriend.

Girls with boyfriends two or more years older are more than twice as likely to drink; almost six times likelier to get drunk; six time likelier to have tried marijuana; and four and one-half times likelier to smoke than girls whose boyfriends are less than two years older or who do not have a boyfriend.

Sexual activities linked to substance abuse.
Teens, half or more of whose friends regularly view and download Internet pornography, are more than three times likelier to smoke, drink or use illegal drugs, compared to teens who have no friends who engage in such behavior.

Forty-four percent of high school students thing that boys at their school often and sometimes 'push girls to drink alcohol or take drugs in order to get the girls to have sex or do other sexual things."
http://www.verywell.com/teen-pitfalls-stress-boredom-extra-money-63732

Underage alcohol use: findings from the 2002-2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health", June 2008. More than 40% of underage drinkers in the United States get their alcohol free from adults age 21 and a significant percentage of them get it from their own parents or guardians. According to a nationwide survey the the Substance Abuse and mental Health Services Administration(SAMHSA), more than 40% of the estimated 10.8 million underage drinkers in the past month got their alcohol free from adults. The study revealed that 6.4% of those drinkers, ages 12 to 20, were provided free alcohol by their own parents or guardians.

"In far too many instances, parents directly enable their children's underage drinking -- in essence, encouraging them to risk their health and well-being." said Acting Surgeon General Steve K. Galson, MD, MPH, in a new release' "Proper parental guidance alone may not be the complete solution to this devastating public health problem, but it is a critical part."

The SAMHSA survey asked young people, ages 12 to 20, about the nature and scope of their drinking behavior, and for the first time, asked about the social conditions under which they drink. The survey confirms an earlier study, which found that more than 1/3 of middle school students got their alcohol from their own parents or from a friend's parents or guardians.

According to the SAMHSA report these are some of the survey's significant findings: 
- More than half (53.9%) of all people ages 12 to 2o engaged in underage drinking in their lifetime, ranging from 11% of 12-year-olds to 85.5% of 20 year-olds.
- An average of 3.5 million people (9.4%), ages 12 to 20, meet the diagnostic criteria for having an alcohol-use disorder each year.
- About one in five people in this age group (7.2 million people) have engaged in binge drinking: consuming five or more drinks on at least one occasion in the past month.
- The vast majority of current underage drinkers (80%) reported being with two or more people the last time they drank. Those who were with two or more people consumed an average of 4.9 drinks on that occasion, compared with 3.1 drinks for those who were with another person and 2.9 drinks for those who were alone. _ Among youths, ages 12 to 14, the rate of current drinking was higher for females (7.7%) than males (6.3%) -- about equal for females and males among those ages 15 to 17 (27.3%, respectively) and lower for females than males among those ages 18 to 20 (47.9%) vs. 54.4 %).
- More than half (53.4%) of underage current alcohol users were at someone else's home when they had their last drink, and 30.3% were in their own home; 9.4% were at a restaurant, bar or club.
- Rate of binge drinking are significantly higher among young people living with a parent who engaged in binge drinking within the past year.

More than 5,000 death a year are attributed to underage drinking in the United States. Parents and guardians of children ages 12 to 20 can have a great influence on their attitudes about drinking and substance abuse in general. As this study shows, that influence can be negative or positive.

The Truth About Alcohol from http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/alcohol.html
Articles on what alcohol is, alcohol content of various "beverages", Drinking and Driving, Young People Versus Adults. What's the Difference?

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"Alcohol's damaging effects on adolescent brain function", ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (2005) February. The adolescent brain is designed to learn; yet the same plasticity that facilitates neuromaturation also renders it particularly vulnerable to the damaging effects of alcohol. Some of the findings presented were:
-The neurochemical, cellular, synaptic, and structural organization of the adolescent brain makes it more vulnerable than the adult brain to disruption from activities such as binge drinking. Adolescent rats that were exposed to binge drinking appear to have permanent damage in their adult brains.
-Research has identified subtle but important brain changes occurring among adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), resulting in a decreased ability in problem solving, verbal and nonverbal retrieval, visuospatial skills, and working memory.
-The association between antisocial behavior during adolescence and alcoholism may be explained by abnormalities int he frontal limbic system, which appears to cause "blunted emotional reactivity".
-Alcohol-induced memory impairments, such as "blackouts", are particularly common among young drinkers and may be at least in part due to disrupted neural plasticity in the hippocampus, which is centrally involved in the formation of autobiographical memories.
- The symposium concluded that many serious adult mental disorders have their onset during childhood, and are risk factors for heavy alcohol involvement, especially attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and bipolar spectrum disorders. The nature and extent of alcohol's effects on the neurodevelopmental and clinical aspects of these disorders should be a priority.

American Association for the Advancement of Science, "Middle-schoolers and alcohol: tips for parents from The Science Inside Alcohol Project at AAAS" , Sept 5, 2008 Children who begin drinking while in middle school or earlier usually have a wide variety of problems that last well into their adulthood.. . Almost 20% of 14-year-olds say they have been drunk at least once, according to a U. S. Surgeon General report, and one-fourth of 8th graders have reported being drunk, according to the Monitoring the Future Survey. Another study, by RAND Health, found that three-quarters of 7th graders had used alcohol.

Five tips for Middle School Parents: Find teachable moments; Talk to your kids when everything is fine; Engage your kids in the science of alcohol, Be vigilant, and Learn to trust your child.

Arria, Amelia, M., et al. "High school drinking mediate the relationship between parental monitoring and college drinking: a longitudinal analysis", SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT, PREVENTION AND POLICY, March 7, 2008. 1,253 male and female students aged 17 to 19 attending a large mid-Atlantic university were studied at two time points. "First, data on high school parental monitoring and alcohol consumption were gathered via questionnaire during the summer prior to college entry. Second, during the firs year of college, pat-year alcohol consumption was measured via a personal interview. Multiple regression models tested the relationship between parental monitoring and the past year alcohol use (i.e., number of drinks per drinking day).

Conclusions: "While parental monitoring did not directly influence college alcohol consumption, evidence for mediation was observed whereby parental monitoring had an indirect influence on college drinking through reductions in high school drinking. Initiatives that promote effective parenting might be an important strategy to curb high-risk drinking among older adolescents. More research is needed to understand the nature and degree of parental-child communication that is necessary to extend the protective influence of parents into the college years.

Bingham, C. Raymond, Shope, Jean T.; "Adolescent developmental antecedents of risky driving among young adults", JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (2004), 65: 84-94. The risk of death due to motor vehicle crash is highest from ages 16 to 35. Crash rates are associated with driver's gender, age, inexperience, emotional states, thrill seeking, personality factors and substance use. This study examined the longitudinal patterns of adolescent psycho social behavior and substance use of five risky drinking groups. Results: a low level of parental monitoring, greater parental permissiveness, a weaker social bound and high levels of and rapid increases in substance use characterized the developmental trajectories of young adult risky drivers. Conclusions: These developmental traits identify individuals who are likely to endanger themselves and others through risky driving and who should receive early interventions to reduce the likelihood of subsequent risky driving.

Bonnie, Richard J.; O'Connell , Mary Ellen O'Connell, Editors "Reducing underage drinking: a collective responsibility," National Academies Press, c2003, p295. Alcohol use by young people is extremely dangerous - both to themselves and society at large. Underage alcohol use is associated with traffic fatalities, violence, unsafe sex, suicide, educational failure, and other problem behaviors that diminish the prospects of future success, as well as health risks &endash; and the earlier teens start drinking, the greater the danger. Despite these serious concerns, the media continues to make drinking look attractive to youth, and it remains possible and even easy for teenagers to get access to alcohol. http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309089352/html/

Why is this dangerous behavior so pervasive? What can be done to prevent it? What will work and who is responsible for making sure it happens? Reducing Underage Drinking addresses these questions and proposes a new way to combat underage alcohol use. It explores the ways in which may different individuals and groups contribute to the problem and how they can be enlisted to prevent it. Reducing Underage Drinking will serve as both a game plan and a call to arms for anyone with an investment in youth health and safety.

Brown, Sandra A.; Tapert, Susan F.; Granholm, Eric; Delis, Dean C.; "Neurocognitive functioning of adolescents: effects of protracted alcohol use," ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (2000), 24 (2): 164-171. (Alcohol dependent adolescents n=33 compared with n=24 adolescents with no history of alcohol dependence, ages 15-16). Alcohol-dependent and comparison adolescents demonstrated significant differences on several NP scores. Protracted alcohol use was associated with poorer performance on verbal and nonverbal retention in the context of intact learning and recognition discriminability. Recent alcohol withdrawal among adolescents was associated with poor visuospatial functioning, whereas lifetime alcohol withdrawal was associated with poorer retrieval of verbal and non verbal information.

Califano, Joseph A., Jr.; "High society: how substance abuse ravages America and what to do about it," ON THE BRAIN: THE HARVARD MAHONEY NEUROSCIENCE INSTITUTE LETTER, (Fall, 2008), 14 (3). "The time has come for a fundamental change in our attitude abut the pervasive and pernicious role drug and alcohol abuse play in our society and a evolution in the way we deal with it.

Americans, comprise 4 percent of the world's population, consumer two-third of the world's illegal drugs. The number of illegal drug users, which had dropped from a high of 25.4 million in 1979 to a quarter century low of 12 in 1992, rose to 20.4 million in 2006. The number of teen illegal drug users, which had dropped from its 1979 high of 3.3 million to a low of 1.1 million in 1992, more than doubled to 2.5 million in 2006.
61 million Americans are hooked on cigarettes
16 to 20 million are addicted to alcohol or abuse it regularly
more than 15 million abuse prescription drugs
15 million smoke marijuana
24 million use cocaine; 600,000 use crack
hundreds of thousands are hooked on heroin
more than 750,000 are methamphetamine users
1 million use ecstasy and hallucinogens
almost 2 million of our children have used steroids
4.5 million teens abuse controlled prescriptions drugs like OxyContin, Ritalin and Adderall to get high

Alcohol and other drug abuse is involved in most violent and property crimes, with 80 percent of the nation's adult inmates and juvenile arrestees either committing their offenses while high, staling to buy drugs, violating alcohol or drug laws, having a history of substance abuse/addiction, or sharing some mix of these characteristics.

Seventy percent of abused and neglected children have alcohol or drug abusing parents. Ninety percent of homeless are alcoholics or alcohol abusers; 60 percent abuse other drugs.

Half of the nation's college students binge drink and/or abuse illegal and prescription drugs. Nearly a quarter of them meet the medial criteria for alcohol and drug abuse and addiction. Cruel courtesy of excessive drinking, each year, 700,000 students are injured, 100,000 are raped or sexually assaulted, and 1,700 are killed by alcohol poisoning or alcohol related injuries.

. . .Now biomedical research and the brain imaging work of Dr. Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), help explain why teens who play with the fire of cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana increase the change they will get burned by the flames of heroin, cocaine, and hallucinogens. All of these substance cause an increase in dopamine levels in the brain. As dopamine levels increase, an individual's feeling of pleasure increases. A growing body of science is finding that ll these substances affect dopamine levels in the brain through similar pathways, and dompamine becomes less active in the brains of addicts who use drugs to trigger the releases, a condition which in turn reinforces the need for the drug.

Califano, Joseph A., Jr.; "Teen tipplers: America's underage drinking epidemic," National Center onand Substance Abuse, Columbia University (February 26, 2002). "Children under the age of 21 drink 25 percent of the alcohol consumed in the U. S. Drinking beer is teen America's fatal attraction. Underage drinkers are a critical segment of the alcohol beverage market. Individuals who do not drink before age 21 are virtually certain never to do do: 82.8 percent of adults who drink had their first drink of alcohol before age 21. In 1998, they accounted for $27 billion of the $108 billion spent on alcohol, including as much as $15 billion on beer. Underage drinkers are a critical segment of the alcohol beverage market. Individuals who do not drink before age 21 are virtually certain never to do so. 82.8 percent of adults who drink had their first drink of alcohol before age 21. Underage drinkers consume 25 percent of the alcohol--most often beer--sold in this country. In 1998, they accounted for up to $27 billion of the $108 billion spent on alcohol, including as much as $15 billion on beer. Without underage drinkers, the alcohol industry, and the beer industry in particular, would suffer severe economic declines and dramatic loss of profits."

Coffman, Donna, Palin, Lori, "Why do high school seniors drink?",PREVENTION SCIENCE (December, 2007). 1,877 students (seniors from the 2004 graduating class) whose data came from the national Monitoring the Future survey conducted annually. The survey found that three-quarter of high school seniors have already experimented with alcohol. Researchers at Penn State found that their motivation for drinking was a big factor in determining if they were high-risk for developing drinking problems. The study found the following trends: boys were more likely to be thrill seekers, a high-risk group; girls were more likely to be experimenters, a low-risk group; experimenters, boys and girls, were more likely to start drinking at a later age; boys who reported drinking before 4 p.m., were eight times more likely to belong to the highest risk group, those who drink for multiple reasons; girls who drank before 4 p/m. were six times more likely to drink for multiple reasons. The study frond that for the graduating class of 2004, students who had multiple reasons to drink, including reasons related to coping, were also more likely to begin drinking at an earlier age, more likely be drunk in the past year and more likely to drink before 4:00 p.m., compared to students who drank to experiment with alcohol,, to experience the thrill of drinking or just to relax.

"A developmental perspective on underage alcohol use," ALCOHOL ALERT (July, 2009), 78. Dramatic developmental changes unfold as individuals mature from birth to childhood, from childhood to adolescence, and from adolescence to early adulthood. These include psychological changes--such as physical growth, brain development, and puberty--as well as psychological and social changes--such as an evolving sense of self, forming more mature relationships with friends, and transitioning from middle school to high school

Developmental changes factor into underage drinking. For example, as a high school student transitions to college, he or she may experience greater freedom and autonomy, creating more opportunities to use alcohol. Underage drinking also can influence development, potentially affecting the course of a person's life. For example, alcohol use can interfere with school performance and/or negatively affect peer relationships.

This "Alcohol Alert" examines the complex relationship between underage drinking and developmental factors influencing drinking, the social and physical consequences of alcohol use, and how various developmental stages can be specifically targeted to design more effective measures for treating underage drinking. http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AA78/AA78.htm

Dick, Danielle M.; Pagan, Jason L.; Holiday, Candice, Viken, Richard, Pulkkinen, Lea, Kaprio, Jaakko, Rose, Richard J.; "Gender differences in friends' influences on adolescent drinking: a genetic and epidemiological study", ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ( December,2007), Results: Friends' drinking, smoking, and delinquency were more strongly related to alcohol use in adolescents with opposite-sex friends, compared to adolescents with only same-sex friends. Friends' alcohol use showed modest evidence of genetic influence in girls, suggesting peer selection, however, there was no evidence of genetic influence on friends' alcohol use in boys. The correlation between adolescent and friend drinking was largely attributable to shared environmental effects and genders. Conclusions: Gender and gender of friends moderate the associations between friends' behavior and adolescents' alcohol use, with evidence that girls, and those with opposite sex friends may be more susceptible to friends' influence. Genetically informative analyses suggest that similarity in alcohol sue between adolescents and their friends is mediated , at least partially, through environmental pathways.

Dick, Daniel M.; Alley, F.; Viken, R.; Kaprio, J.; Rose. R. J.; "Rutgers alcohol problem index scores at age 18 predict alcohol dependence diagnoses 7 years later", ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (2011), 35 (5): 1110-4. The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) is widely used to assess adolescent drinking-related problems. We asked how well RAPI administered in late adolescence, predicts alcohol diagnoses at age 25 in a 7 -year follow-up. At age 18, a population-based sample of Finnish twins completed RAPI by postal questionnaire; 597 (300 male) twins, from pairs discordant and concordant for age 18 RAPI scores, were interviewed at age 25 with the SSAGA, yielding DSM-IIIR diagnosis. Conclusions: Our results offer evidence, including that from informative comparisons of co-twins discordant for both predictor and outcome, that RAPI scores in late adolescence robustly predict alcohol diagnoses in early adulthood. Accordingly, our results also provide new evidence that one pathway to problem drinking in early adulthood is a direct one from problem drinking in adolescence.

Donovan, John E., Zucker, Robert A., "Children's introduction to alcohol use : sips and tastes", ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (2008), Jan; 32 (1): 108-19. Sipping or tasting alcohol is one of the earliest alcohol use behaviors in which young children engage, yet there is relatively little research on this behavior. A sample of 452 children (238 girls) ages 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County PA using targeted-age directory sampling and random digit dialing procedures. Children were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the univariate and multivariate correlates of sipping/tasting. Results" 39% of the sample hand only sipped or tasted alcohol (35% or 8 year olds and 48% or 10 year olds), while 6% reported having had a drink of alcohol (5% and 7% respectively). African-American children were less likely than White children to be sippers. Neither gender or mother's education related to sipping status. Most sipping was done in family context. Sipping/tasting did not generally relate to variables reflecting psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. Instead, the variables most predictive of sipping/tasting were perceived parents' drinking status, perceived parents' approval for child sipping, mother's drinking frequency, and children's attitudes toward sipping/tasting alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Young children's sipping/tasting of alcohol reflects parental modeling of alcohol use and increased opportunities to try alcohol in the home rather than deliberate family socialization of alcohol use, and appears not to be a precocious manifestation of a psychosocial proneness to engage in problem behavior.

"Drinking games", TEEN VOGUE (2003), October/November: 190-193. "Binge drinking is seen as a perverse form of feminism, beating guys at what used to be their own game. Now that girls expect to be treated the same as boys, and have the same goals and career aspirations, they expect to be able to drink the same way." (Irrespective of the fact that females process alcohol differently from males.) "A Duke University study on the consequences of alcohol use on the brains of teenagers found that consuming even three drinks in one sitting impairs thinking, learning, and short-term memory."

Ellickson, Phyllis L., et. al. "Does solitary substance use increase adolescents' risk for poor psychosocial and behavioral outcomes" PSYCHOLOGY OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS, December, 2006. Teens who use alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana while they are alone are more likely to experience health and behavioral problems as young adults, even more so than their peers who also used the same substances, but did so in social settings. These conclusions came from a study of 6,000 eighth graders conducted by the RAND Corporation.

Solitary alcohol, cigarette and marijuana users are less likely to graduate from college, more likely to have substance use problems as young adults, and tend to report poorer physical health by age 23 than their peers who were social substance users, the report said.

"While substance use is a problem in itself, these findings suggest that risk among solitary users is especially high," said Joan Tucker, a RAND psychologist and lead author of the study. "Solitary use is a warning sign that youth will be less productive and have more problems as young adults -- more problems, even, than others who also used substances during childhood. The challenge is to identify these at-risk children and find out what type of assistance might benefit them."

The study found that solitary users had lower grades, spent less time spent on homework and less time devoted to school activities. However, solitary users spent significantly more time going to parties and dating than other substance-using youth.

"This dispels the notion that these solitary users are lonely, socially isolated teens," Tucker said in a news release.

The study also found:
* Solitary substance users typically felt that substance use has positive effects on their behavior, allowing them to relax, have more fun, and get away from their problems.
* They were less likely than social-only users to think substance use is harmful -- that it impairs physical and cognitive functioning, or factors into behavioral problems.
* Solitary users reported higher frequency and quantity of substance use compared to social-only users.
* Solitary users in 8th grade reported using alcohol, cigarettes or marijuana three to five days in the past month.
* On the days they used the substances, they smoked three to seven cigarettes, had two to three alcoholic drinks, or smoked marijuana three or more times.
* Social-only users in 8th grade reported using substances less than one to two days in the past month.
* On the days they used the substances, they smoked one to two cigarettes, had one drink, or smoked marijuana twice.

These findings come from a study of 6,000 adolescents from California and Oregon enrolled in a program to evaluate Project ALERT, a drug use prevention program developed by RAND for middle school children.

Ellickson, Phyllis, "Early drinking a warning sign", PEDIATRICS, May, 2003. Underage drinking is a major national problem , with estimates suggesting that by 8th grade one-fourth for all adolescents have consumed alcohol to the point of intoxication. In addition, adolescent drinking plays a key role in the four leading causes of death among teens--car accidents, accidental injuries, homicides and suicides.

At age 23, those identified in 7th grade as drinkers still showed significantly more behavior problems than those who had been nondrinkers. The drinkers were 2 to 3 times more likely to use hard drugs, experience multiple drug problems, or have undergone alcohol or drug treatment, 3 times more likely to have been arrested for drunk driving, twice as likely to engage in violent criminal behavior in the past year, and nearly 1.5 times more likely to report missing work for no reason.

These results suggest that drinking in early adolescence may be among the most important risk factors for a wide variety of behavior problems during the transition to young adulthood. Preventing drinking initiation before Grade 7 may help reduce these later problems. Researchers say it is not clear what mechanisms link early alcohol use to behavior problems later in life. It may be that alcohol disrupts the development of adequate social and academic skills that are needed to succeed later in life. Or early alcohol use may signal that and individual is predisposed to use drugs and develop other behavioral problems.

Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Tucker, Joan; Klein, David J.; "Ten year prospective study of public health problems associated with early drinking", PEDIATRICS (2003), 111 (5), 949-955. (longitudinal self reported data) Results: Early drinkers and experimenters were more likely than nondrinkers to report academic problems, substance use, and delinquent behavior in both middle school and high school. By young adulthood, early alcohol use was associated with employment problems, other substance abuse, and criminal and violent behavior. Conclusions: Early drinkers do not necessarily mature out of problematic lifestyle as young adults, Interventions for these high-risk youth should start early and address their other public health problems, particularly their tendency to smoke and use other illicit drugs.

Teen Drinking Not Just A Phase
Teen-agers who exhibit symptoms of drinking problems today are more likely to develop serious drinking problems, other substance abuse, and mental disorders in early adulthood, according to new research. Rather than "going through a phase" that they will out grow, the new study indicates that their drinking and mental health problems will get worse with age if left untreated. Previous studies have shown that these "early onset" substance abusers difficult to treat in adulthood.

Dr. Paul Rohde of the Oregon Research Institute interviewed 940 high school students twice during adolescence and again at age 24. The results of the study, published in the January issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, indicate that those will diagnosed drinking problems, or even symptoms of drinking problems as teens were more likely to:

  • Develop increased drinking problems.
  • Smoke cigarettes and use other drugs.
  • Develop depression and personality disorders

Author and speaker Shelly Marshall literally wrote the book on treating teen-age abusers. Her book, Parents Need to Know: Teenage Addicts Can Recover points out common prejudices about teen addicts and the effectiveness of placing teen addicts in multigenerational programs.

 

Cheap Prices Encourage Binge Drinking : Marketing practices linked to higher rates of drinking (American Journal of Preventive Medicine, October, 2003)

Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS) released a new study documenting, through systematic on-site observations, the extent to which college students are targeted with sales of large volumes of alcohol, low sale prices, and frequent alcohol promotions at bars, liquor stores, and other retail outlets surrounding college campuses. 118 colleges were analyzed for this study.

The study found a strong association between the presence of these promotions and higher rates of heavy drinking on college campuses. According to previous CAS research, underage students consume 48 percent of all alcohol consumed on college campuses.

The study paints a portrait of the alcohol promotions college students will likely encounter as they start school this fall and enumerates the typical price of a beer, which can be as cheap as 25 cents. This study marks the first time that trained observers went into bars and liquor stores surrounding college campuses to obtain a national picture of the marketing practices for alcohol in college communities without relying solely on student recall.

"With its findings on the price and marketing sensitivity of high-risk, destructive binge drinking among college students, the Harvard study is testimony to the importance of a community-wide focus on behavior change strategies," said J. Michael McGinnis, MD, Senior Vice President and Director of the Health Group of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. "These efforts must include not only college administrators and students, but local business and community leaders, civic organizations, and the alcohol industry as well."

A total of 1,684 off-premise establishments and 830 on-premise establishments were observed. Field data collectors received more than 22 hours of training, including both classroom instruction and supervised observations in the community.

College student binge drinking, as defined by Wechsler and other public health researchers, is the consumption of five or more drinks in a row at least once in the past two weeks for men, and four or more drinks in a row for women. Research has shown that this style of binge drinking is associated with lower grades, vandalism, and physical and sexual violence.

The researchers conclude that efforts to reduce problems associated with college binge drinking have focused primarily on education and changes in student behavior. However, the results of this study suggest that the efforts to regulate marketing practices (e.g. sale prices, super-sized packaging, promotions, and exterior advertisements) may be important strategies.

"Types of Alcoholic Beverages Usually Consumed by Students in 9th-12th Grades --- Four States", MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT (005), 56(29): 737-740. Researchers found that more than 4 in 10 teens in Arkansas, New Mexico, Nebraska and Wyoming drank, and that bourbon, rum, scotch, vodka and whiskey were more popular with drinkers than beer. Liquor was the most popular alcoholic drink with teens in all four states, followed by beer or malt liquor, then wine. For example, 44.7 percent of Arkansas teens drank liquor, compared to 1.6 percent who drank wine.

Liquor was the most popular drink among girls in all four states, and the favorite of boys in three; only in Nebraska was beer more popular among boys.

James Garbutt, a professor of psychiatry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, said, "It is intriguing that hard liquor is the preferred beverage. I wouldn't intuitively have thought that."

Researchers said that liquor may be more popular because it's easier to conceal by mixing with a soft drink, or the taste may be more palatable. Garbutt speculated that young drinkers also may prefer liquor because it get them drunk faster.

"Young people and alcohol", Alcohol Policies Project, Center for Science in the Public Interest.
--Approximately 9.7 million current drinkers in the United States are between the ages of 12-20. Of these young drinkers, 18.7% engage in binge drinking and 6% are heavy drinkers.
--On average young people begin drinking at 13.1 years of age.
--By the time they are high school seniors, 80% have used alcohol and 62% have been drunk.
--Girls are beginning to drink at younger ages. In the 1960s, 7% of 10-to 14-year-old females used alcohol, by the early 1980s, that figure had risen to 31%.
--Due to heavy drinking, nearly one out of every five teenagers (16%) has experiences "black outs", after which they could not remember what happened the previous evening.
--Young people have easy access to alcohol. In alcohol purchase attempts made by researchers across the U. S., buyers who appeared to be underage were able to purchases alcohol with no questions asked at least 50% of the time.
--Alcohol is a factor in the four leading causes of death among person ages 10 to 24; motor vehicle crashes, unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide.

The Facts: to buckle up America, safety belts and teens 2003 report, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, March, 2003. "Teens have the highest fatality rate in motor vehicle crashes than any other age group. There are many reasons; for instance, while teens are learning new skills needed for driving, many frequently engage in high-risk behaviors, such as speeding and/or driving after using alcohol or drugs. Studies also have shown that teens may be easily distracted while driving. One key reason for high traffic fatalities among this age group is that they have lower safety belt use rates than adults. Because teens have an increased exposure to potentially fatal traffic crashes, it is imperative that efforts to increase safety belt use among this age group be given the highest priority. In addition, the youth population has increased by more than 12 percent since 1993, and is expected to increase by another sever percent by 2005. As this age group increases as a percentage of the population, the personal and societal costs associated with deaths and injuries from motor vehicle crashes also will rise."

Adams, Marcus, AMA: Alcohol damages teens' brains, December 9, 2002. "Studies have found that adults need to drink twice as much alcohol as teens to experience the same level of harm. In addition, occasional drinking sprees can damage memory and cognition in adolescents. Roughly one-in-five youths ages 12 to 20 report binge drinking, having four to five drinks at a time.

Baer, John S.; Sampson, Paul D.; Barr, Helen M.; Connor, Paul D.; Streissguth, Ann P.; "A 21-year longitudinal analysis of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on young adult drinking." ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY (2003), 60: 377-385. Prenatal alcohol exposure may be a risk factor for the development of alcohol problems in humans. We used data beginning with interviews of women in prenatal care at midpregnancy to predict alcohol use and alcohol related problems in their offspring now aged 21 years. Maternal drinking during pregnancy was assessed from November 4, 1974, through October 2, 1975, along with measures of maternal smoking, use of caffeine and other drugs, and demographic factors. Family history of alcohol problems was assessed from interviews with parents when offspring were 14 years of age and updated when offspring were 21 years of age. Measures of prenatal use of alcohol and other drugs and many aspects of the family environment were assessed at 7 different ages, prenatally through 21 years. Young adult offspring (age, 21 years [N=4331] provide self-reports of drinking quantity and frequency and completed the Alcohol Dependence Scale as a measure of alcohol-related problems and dependence. Results: Univariate, partial least squares, and regression analyses indicate that prenatal alcohol exposure is significantly associated with alcohol problems at 21 years of age. The relationship persists independent of the effects of family history of alcohol problems, nicotine exposure, other prenatal exposures, and postnatal environmental factors including prenatal use of other drugs. Prenatal nicotine exposure was not associated with alcohol problems by offspring at 21 years of age. The analyses reported herein provide evidence of the relationship, across more than 21 years, between prenatal alcohol exposure and the degree of negative consequences that result from heavy drinking in young adulthood. However, those with persistent alcohol problems in midlife typically began drinking in adolescence and young adulthood.

Bierut, Laura J.; "Cigarette smoking and the risk for alcohol use disorders among adolescent drinkers," ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (2006), 30 (12):2046-54. "Cigarette smoking and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are closely linked, but it is not clear whether higher rates of AUD among smokers are solely attributable to heavier drinking or, alternatively, whether smokers are more vulnerable to alcohol abuse and dependence than nonsmokers who drink comparable quantities. Specifically, we analyzed the relationship between cigarette smoking, drinking, and AUDs. Methods: Data were from the aggregated 2002 through 2004 U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Participants were randomly selected, household-dwelling adolescents and young adults (ages 12-20) from the noninstitutionalized, civilian population of the United States (N=74,836). Measurements included current DSM-IV alcohol abuse or dependence, number of drinks in the past 30 days, and past-year cigarette smoking, defined as having smoked more than 100 cigarettes across the lifetime and having smoked during the past year. Results: Past-year smokers (prevalence=16.0%) drank in higher quantities than never-smokers, but were also at elevated risk for AUD when compared with never-smokers who drank equivalent quantities. The effect was observed across age groups, but was more prominent among younger adolescents. After adjusting for drinking quantity and sociodemographic variables, smokers had 4.5-fold higher odds of AUD than never-smokers [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 3.1-6.6]. Youths who reported smoking but did not cross the 100-cigarette threshold were at intermediate risk [odds ratio (OR), 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.3]. Differences in AUD between smokers and never-smokers were most pronounced at lower levels of drinking. Conclusions: The results are consistent with a higher vulnerability to AUDs among smokers, compared with nonsmokers who drink equivalent quantities."

Center for Disease Control and Prevention study on the involvement of young drivers in fatal alcohol-related vehicle crashes is encouraging in that it demonstrated the 21 minimum drinking age, zero tolerance, graduated licensing and increased enforcement are showing a positive impact on the nation's underage drinking problem. CDC findings, based on unpublished data from Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) shows that young drivers are at high risk for fatal alcohol-related crashes when driving exposure is considered. Youth make up 6.9 percent of the total driving population, they constitute 13 percent of the alcohol-involved drivers in fatal crashes, in 2001, more than 2,400 youth ages 15 to 20 were killed in alcohol-related traffic crashes.
Address: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5148a2.htm

The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY) Address: http://camy.org/

  • Sex Differences in Adolescent Exposure to Alcohol Advertising in Magazines CAMY study released in July issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine

    STOP Underage Drinking Act: Important First Step
    Statement Attributable to Jim O'Hara, Executive Director, Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth

    Girls More Likely Than Boys to Be Overexposed to Alcohol Advertising in Magazines
    Study published in the "Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine" documents girls' overexposure

    Alcohol Ads Outnumber Responsibility Ads 226 to 1. In 2002, responsibility ads plummeted while alcohol product ads soared

"Costs of underage drinking," Pacific Institute, U. S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, revised October 1999.

  • total cost of alcohol use by you was $52.8 billion in 1996.
  • this is the equivalent of $200 for every man, woman and child in the United States.
  • each year, the federal government spends between $900 million and $1 billion on alcohol prevention services for all ages; this total is less than 2% of the annual cost of alcohol use by youth alone

Costs of alcohol use by youths in 1996 in 1998 dollars

  • traffic crashes $19,452,000,000
  • violent crime $29,368,000,000
  • burns $189,000,000
  • drowning $426,000.000
  • suicide attempts $1,512,000,000
  • fetal alcohol syndrome $493,000,000
  • alcohol poisonings $340,000,000
  • treatment $1,008,000,000

Chambers, R . Andrew; Taylor, Jane R.; Potenza, Marc N., "Developmental neurocircuitry of motivation in adolescence: a critical period of addiction vulnerability, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY (2003), 160: 1041-1052. Epidemiological studies indicate that experiments with addictive drugs and onset of addictive disorders is primarily concentrated in adolescence and young adulthood. The authors describe basic and clinical data supporting adolescent neurodevelopment as a biologically critical period of greater for experimentation with substances and acquisition of substance use disorders. Results: Adolescent neurodevelopment occurs in brain regions associated with motivation, impulsivity, and addiction. Adolescent impulsivity and/or novelty seeking as a transitional trait behavior can be explained in part by maturational changes in frontal cortical and subsoritcal monoaminergic systems. These developmental processes may advantageously promote learning drives for adaptation to adult roles but may also confer greater vulnerability to the addictive actions of drugs. Conclusions: An exploration of developmental stages in neurocircuitry involved in impulse control has significant implications for understanding adolescent behavior, addiction vulnerability, and the prevention of addiction in adolescence and adulthood.

Chung, T ; Martin, CS ; Grella, CE ; Winters, KC ; Abrantes, AM ; Brown, SA; "Course of alcohol problems in treated adolescents," ALCOHOLISM, CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH 2003 Feb; 27(2): 253-61. Knowledge of the clinical course in treated adolescents is fundamental to determining the influence of treatment on long-term functioning and the factors associated with change in the severity of alcohol problems over time. The 2002 annual Research Society on Alcoholism meeting and organized by Tammy Chung and Christopher S. Martin, presented research on the course of alcohol-related problems in treated adolescents who were followed prospectively for 1 to 8 years. Presentations included (1) Alcohol use outcomes at 1 year among adolescents in the drug abuse treatment outcomes studies, by Christine E. Grella; (2) Pathways and predictors of the course of adolescent alcohol problems across 1- and 3-year follow-ups, by Tammy Chung; (3) Young adult outcomes of an adolescent clinical sample at 5-year follow-up, by Ken C. Winters; and (4) Trajectories of alcohol involvement following addiction treatment through 8-year follow-up in adolescents, by Ana M. Abrantes, Denis M. McCarthy, Gregory A. Aarons, and Sandra A. Brown. Sandra A. Brown, discussant, commented on the presentations. Results from these studies indicate multiple pathways of change, distinguished by fluctuations in the chronicity and severity of alcohol problems. Across studies, most adolescents showed reductions in alcohol use and problems after treatment, with concurrent improvements in psycho social functioning. Findings highlight the influence of other drug use on post treatment patterns of alcohol involvement and the need to consider the effect of normative developmental transitions on the course of adolescent-onset substance use disorders.

Clifford, Jane, "Tapping into young minds," SignonSanDiego.com, January 25, 2003.
"Shimasaki says she got involved about two years ago after seeing the rise of drug and alcohol use in young people her age, especially among her friends.

"We are told, "Just say no, avoid the situation,' but in reality we're seeing ads that portray alcohol as a normal part of life and what kids need to do to fit in. Research shows that 58 percent of kids in grades 5 through 12 say that alcohol ads encourage them to drink. So kids do notice the ads." "The public, including parents, have the misconception that alcohol is a safe drug, says researcher Sandra Brown. "They'd actually rather see their kids drink than do drugs."

"The most dangerous kind of drinking is binge drinking, which is five or more drinks at one time," she says, adding that it is on the rise in the United States. "For youth, that produces withdrawal and damage to the hippo campus, the part of the brain critical to learning and memory.

"If in advertising, what we're modeling is the positive effects--the more you drink, the better you feel--then you need to know that the reality is, the more you drink, the more it kills brain cells."

Brown says 8 in 10 teenagers will have had some alcohol by the time they graduate. About half of high school students, she adds, report drinking in the last two weeks, "and about a quarter of youth binge drink, which is five or more drinks at one sitting."

"Alcohol is a factor in the four leading causes of death among persons ages 10 to 24--car crashes, suicide, homicide, and unintentional injuries." Our studies at UCSD show that youth who drank alcohol 100 times have used fewer strategies to learn new information and remember less, about 10 percent less, than you who don't drink alcohol."

Curley, Bob, "Industry hammered for marketing to kids, binge drinkers, alcoholics", New York Time, April 17, 2003.
"The alcohol industry understands alcoholism better than anyone. . .If every American drank according to the federal guidelines, industry sales would be cut by 80 percent." said Jean Kilbourne, Ed. D., a visiting scholar at Wellesley College and a national expert on alcohol and tobacco advertising.

"No matter what you're selling, the heavy user is your best customer" she said, charging that the alcohol industry "needs alcoholics and binge drinkers on campus."

George Hacker, director of the Alcohol Policies Project at the CENTER FOR SCIENCE IN THE PUBLIC INTEREST, agreed. "Ten percent of consumers drink 50 percent of the alcohol," he said. "Without them, the alcohol industry would dry up like a prune."

Tom Greenfield, a senior researcher at the ALCOHOL RESEARCH GROUP, said that marketing for beer, in particular, encourages over consumption. For instance, while research shows that the top 20 percent of wine buyers consume one to four glasses at a sitting, Greenfield said the top 20 percent of beer purchasers drinks four or more at a sitting.

Underage drinkers comprise 11 to 20 percent of the alcohol market, contents Jernigan, who says most underage drinker drink to excess. "These are not young people having a glass of wine at a school cafeteria soiree," he said. "New drinkers are heavy drinkers"

Kilbourne said that advertising, which she called "the propaganda of American society," trivializes relationships, teaches that happiness can be bought, and says that people are less important than things. "That's especially troubling when the product is addictive," she said. "We know addicts feel lonely and feel that the substance they are addicted to is their only friend."

 
"Dangerous season for teens", Alcoholism.About.com. More than one-third of youth under the age of 21 killed alcohol-related fatalities in 2001 died during the months of April, May and June--prom and graduation season--according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). In 2001 alone, 2950 children under 21 died in alcohol-related traffic fatalities--1,012 died during the months of April, May and June. A survey conducted by the Century Council reveled that 13-20 twenty year old reported they are drinking alcoholic beverages. Youth are consuming alcohol illegally, but the source for 52% of those same 13-20 year-olds is that they got the alcohol from their parents or their friends parents.

Dawson DA ; Grant BF ; Li TK; "Impact of age at first drink on stress-reactive drinking", ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (2007), 31(1): 69-77, "Data collected in the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were used to estimate the extent to which age at first drink modified the association between stress and average daily volume (ADV) of ethanol intake in a sample of 26,946 past-year drinkers. Successive models estimated the magnitude and significance of the interaction between age at first drink (ages 14 or younger, 15-17, and 18 or older) and number of stressors (out of 12 past-year negative life events) after (1) adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, (2) additionally adjusting for family history of alcoholism, comorbid psychopathology, adolescent, and past-year tobacco and illicit drug use, and (3) additionally adjusting for all other significant interactions with number of stressors. The findings of this study are consistent with the argument that early-onset drinking may increase stress-reactive ethanol consumption; however, these findings need to be replicated in an experimental human study in order to control fully the direction of the relationship between stress and consumption.

Daugherty, Donald M.;Mathias, Charles W.; Tester Melissa L.; March, Dawn M.;"Age at first drink related to behavioral measures of impulsivity: the immediate and delayed memory tasks", ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (2004), 28)3):408-414. Using a laboratory behavioral measure of impulsivity, two groups of women were compared. They differed in their self-reported age of first drink (early-on set drinking, age <18, n=40 and late-onset drinking, age >=21, n=23. The results demonstrate that differences in impulsive behavioral responding are distinguishable even between groups of alcohol drinkers who are not experiencing clinically significant problems with alcohol.

"Early age of first drink like symptom, not cause, of alcoholism.," University of Minnesota,, posted 8/16/2001, ALCOHOLISM : CLINICAL AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH, August, 2001. "Adolescents who take their first drink before age 15 tend to run a high risk of developing alcoholism. Research suggests that early drinking is likely not the cause of alcoholism, but a symptom of an underlying predisposition to alcoholism and other behavioral problems. An early age of first drink (AFD) runs in families, and early AFD appears to be heritable in males.

We found that early AFD is associated not simply with alcoholism, but with a wide range of behavioral outcomes that are indicative of a reluctance or inability to control one's behavior. Besides alcoholism, early AFD include drug abuse, delinquency, antisocial behavior in adulthood and decreased educational attainment. Early AFD adolescents also showed a reduced amplitude of the P3 brain wave, a standard psychophysiological marker for alcoholism risk. Adolescents who had at least one parent who experienced an early AFD are more likely to experience early AFD themselves. Such adolescents were more likely to become early drinkers, and boys especially, were more like to exhibit conduct disorder and a pattern of rebelliousness. Of those boys whose parents both had an early AFD, 60 percent had one or both of these conditions.

 

"Fathers' alcohol and substance use among adolescents", The NSDUH Report, June 18, 2009, 8p. Findings: Almost one in twelve (7.9 percent) fathers living with adolescents aged 12 to 17 had an alcohol use disorder, while 68.1 percent used alcohol in the past year but did not have and alcohol use disorder; 24.1 percent did not use alcohol int eh past year. The rate of past year alcohol use among adolescents was lower for those who lived with a father who did not use alcohol int he past year than for those who lived with a father who used alcohol but did not have an alcohol use disorder and for those who lived with a father with an alcohol use disorder (21.1 vs. 33.2 and 38.8 percent, respectively). The percentage of adolescents using illicit drugs in the past year increased with the level of parental alcohol use. with illicit drugs in the past year increased with the level of paternal alcohol use, with illicit drug use reported by 14.0 percent of adolescents who lived with a father who did not use alcohol in the past year, 18.4 percent of those who lived with a father who used alcohol but did not have an alcohol use disorder, and 24.2 percent of those who lived with a father with an alcohol use disorder. http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k9/108/FatherAlcUse.htm

Foster, Susan, et al.; "Alcohol consumption and expenditures for underage drinking and adult excessive drinking", JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (2003), 289 (8):989-995.
The proportion of 12-20-year-olds who drink was estimated to be 50.0% using data from the YRBS; the proportion of adults aged 21 or older who drink was estimated to be 52.8% using data from the BRFSS. The estimated total number of drinks consumed per month was 4.21 billion; underage drinkers consumed 19.7% of this total. The amount of adult drinking that was excessive (>2 drinks per day) was 30.4% Consumer expenditure on alcohol in the United States in 1999 was $116.2 billion; of that $22.5 billion was attributed to underage drinking and $34 billion was attributed to adult excessive drinking. The data suggest that underage drinkers and adult excessive drinkers are responsible for 50.1% of alcohol consumption and 48.9% of consumer expenditure.

 
Gordon, Serena; "Feeling no pain, huh?", HEALTHDAYREPORTER, April 14, 2003. In a new study, University of Michigan researchers found people who have alcohol in their system--even when it's far less than the legal limit for impaired driving--are more likely to be severely injured in car crashes. "While having a designated driver is recommended, it doesn't protect you if you get into a crash and you have alcohol on board. If you get into a crash, having alcohol in your system increased the injury severity by 30 percent. Drinking alcohol before a crash more than doubled the risk of dying in an accident. The risk of almost every type of injury went up with the consumption of alcohol. Note: alcohol thins the blood and increases the changes of bleeding to death.

 
Graham, Nanette; "The influence of predictors on adolescent drunk use: an examination of individual effects", YOUTH AND SOCIETY (1996), 28 (2): 215-235. According to Johnston, O'Malley and Bachman (1991) the United States has the highest level of teenage drug use of an industrialized nation in the world. National surveys on drug use indicate that among the adolescent populations ages 12 to 17, 22% reported any illicit drug use during their lifetimes, 15% reported and illicit drug use during the previous year, and 8% reported the previous month (National Household Survey on Alcohol or Drug Abuse, 1991). Predictive factors include feelings of alienation from parents and society, association with drug-using peers, negative attitudes toward school,k low believe in conventional social rules, low self-esteem, antisocial and rebellious behavior, availability of drugs, family alcohol and drug behavior, academic failure, and attitudes and beliefs favorable toward drug use.

 
Greenfield, Thomas K.; Rogers, John D.;"Who drinks most of the alcohol in the U. S. The policy implications," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1999), 60 (1): 78-89. " Number of respondents 7,049, 4,784 drinkers. Men were over represented at the highest volumes, contributing about 78% of the country's total reported consumption. Similarly, young adults aged 18 to 29 are disproportionately represented in the heaviest drinking levels. Conclusions: the bulk of the alcohol reported drunk in the U. S. is consumed by a relatively small population of very heavy drinkers. Prevention policies implied by this concentration include strengthening social norms, discouraging heavy consumption, restricting marketing practices that target heavy drinkers, and implementing measure to reduce consumption by the heaviest drinkers."

 
Guilamo-Ramos, et al.; "Progressing from light experimentation to heavy episodic drinking in early and middle adolescence," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (2004), 65: 494-500. "Conclusions: Adolescents who are light experimenters represent a high-risk group as a consequence of their initial consumption tendencies. Some of these adolescents graduated beyond simple experimentation and moved into patterns of consumption that could be considered dangerous. Our analyses implicated an array of parental-based buffers: parent involvement in the adolescent's life, development of good communication patterns and expressions of warmth and affection. Minimizing associations with peers who consume alcohol and may also have a buffering effect. There was evidence that these buffers may dampen gender differences not so much be affecting female drinking tendencies as by keeping males at reduced levels of alcohol consumption comparable to those of females."

 
Guo, Jie; Hawkins, J. David; Hill, Karl G.; Abbott, Robert D.; "Childhood and adolescent predictors of alcohol abuse and dependence in young adulthood", JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (2001), 62: 754-762. This study also shows that at the early age of 10, efforts that prevent and reduce delinquency, prevent and reduce a child's association with the bonding to antisocial and alcohol-using peers and prevent children from developing favorable attitudes towards alcohol may also reduce the risk of alcohol dependence in young adult hood. Six pro social constructs predicted a lower risk for alcohol abuse and dependence at age 21. The significant protective factors were strong bonding to school, high educational expectations, close parental monitoring of children and clearly defined family rules for behavior, high level of refusal skills and strong beliefs in the moral order only. Of these, only school bonding consistently predicted less risk for alcohol abuse and dependence from all three developmental periods. On the antisocial path, youths who has a higher risk of alcohol abuse and dependence at age 21 were those who engaged in more problem behaviors, had more opportunities for involvement with antisocial others, spent more time with and were more bonded to those individuals, viewed fewer negative consequences from antisocial behaviors and held more favorable views on alcohol use. Of those, prior problem behaviors, antisocial opportunities and involvement consistently predicted alcohol abuse and dependence from all three ages: 10, 14 and 16.

Hallfors, Denise D., Waller, Martha W.. Ford, Carol A., et. al.; "Adolescent depression and suicide risk association with sex and drug behavior", AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE (2004), 27 (3): 224-231. Teens engaging in risk behaviors re at increased odds for depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Although causal direction as not established, involvement in any sex or drug use is cause for concern, and should be a clinical indication for mental health screening for girls; both boys and girls should be screened if engaging in any marijuana or illegal drug use.

Hearst, M. O; Fulkerson, JA; Maldonado-Molina, MM; Perry, CL; Komro,KA; "Who needs liquor stores when parents will do? The importance of social sources of alcohol among young urban teens", PREVENTIVE MEDICINE (2007), 44(6): 471-6. "OBJECTIVES: Examine sources of alcohol over time in a large, ethnically diverse adolescent population from a poor, urban environment. METHODS: Surveys were administered at four time points (6th-8th grades) assessing demographic characteristics, past year alcohol use and sources of alcohol to youth in Chicago, Illinois 2002-2005. Growth curve analysis was used to examine alcohol access trends among all alcohol using youth and consistent alcohol users. Interactions by race and gender were tested. RESULTS: Social sources of alcohol were the most prevalent source over time. Parents were the primary source of alcohol, but their prominence significantly decreased over time. Taking alcohol from home, and getting alcohol from other adults, individuals under age 21, and commercial sources significantly increased as sources of alcohol over time. Males were significantly more likely than females to get alcohol from commercial sources and friends' parents. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention for reducing social access to alcohol, particularly among parents, is needed for alcohol prevention efforts prior to and during middle school."

Hingson, RW; Heeren, T; Winter, M. R.: "Age of alcohol-dependence onset: associations with severity of dependence and seeking treatment", PEDIATRICS (2006), 118(3): 755-63. "RESULTS: Of persons ever alcohol dependent, 15% were diagnosable before age 18, 47% before age 21, and two thirds before age 25. Twenty-eight percent reported > or = 2 dependence episodes, 45% experienced an episode exceeding 1 year, and 34% reported 6 or 7 dependence criteria. Relative to those first alcohol dependent at > or = 30 years, 21% of those ever dependent, the odds of ever seeking help were lower among those first dependent before ages 18, 20, and 25. Yet, persons first dependent at < or = 25 years had significantly greater odds of experiencing multiple dependence episodes, episodes exceeding 1 year, and more dependence symptoms. Analyses indicated that the previously reported increased odds that persons who start to drink at an early age develop features of chronic relapsing dependence may have resulted from early drinkers being more likely to develop alcohol dependence at younger ages. This, in turn, increased their odds of experiencing multiple and longer episodes of alcohol dependence with more symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents need to be screened and counseled about alcohol, and treatment services should be reinforced by programs and policies to delay age of first alcohol dependence."

Hingson, Ralph W.; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael R.; "Age of drinking onset and alcohol dependence: age at onset, duration, and severity," ARCHIVES IN PEDIATRIC & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE (2006): 160, 739-746. (43, 093 adults surveyed) Relative to respondents who began drinking at 21 years or older, those who began drinking before age 14 years were more likely to experience alcohol dependence ever and within 10 years of first drinking (adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. They also more often experiences past-year dependence and multiple dependence episodes. Among alcohol-dependent persons, the odds were 2.62 (95%) for having at least 1 episode exceeding 1 year and 2.98 (95%) for meeting 6 or 7 dependence diagnostic criteria. Conclusion: There is a need to screen and counsel adolescents about alcohol use and to implement policies and programs that delay alcohol consumption.

Hingson, R.; Hereen, T.; Zakocs, R.; Winter,M.; Wechsler, H.; "Age of first intoxication, heavy drinking, driving after drinking and risk of unintentional injury among U. S. college students", JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (2003), 64 (1): 23-31. 14,138 respondents. This study explored whether college students who were first intoxicated by alcohol at ages younger than 19 are more likely to become alcohol dependent and frequent heavy drinkers, drive after drinking, ride with intoxicated drivers and be injured after drinking. It also investigated whether these results occur because these students believe they can drink more and still drive legally and safely. Results: compared with respondents first drunk at age 19 or older, those first drunk prior to age 19 were significantly more likely to be alcohol dependent and frequent heavy drinkers, to report driving after any drinking, driving after five or more drinks, riding with a driver who was high or drunk and, after drinking, sustaining injuries that required medical attention. Respondents first intoxicated at younger ages believed they could consume more drinks and still drive safely and legally; this contributed to their greater likelihood of driving after drinking and riding with high or drunk drivers. 

Hingson, R.; Heeren, T.; Winter, M. R..; Wechsler, H.;"Early age of first drunkenness as a factor in college students' unplanned and unprotected sex attributable to drinking", PEDIATRICS (2003), 111 (1), 34-41. Early age of drinking onset has been associated with a greater likelihood among adults of experiencing alcohol dependence, frequent heavy drinking even among nondependent drinkers, and an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, unintentional injuries, and physical fights after drinking. This study explores whether first getting drunk at a younger age is associated with a greater likelihood of college students reporting that they had unplanned or unprotected sexual intercourse because of their drinking. Results: Among college students who drink, those first drunk before age 13 compared with those who never drank until age 19 or older has a 2.0 times greater odds of having unplanned sex and a 2.2 times greater odds of having unprotected sex reportedly because of drinking, even after controlling for age, race/ethnicity, marital status, parental drinking history and frequency of smoking and marijuana use. After further controlling for history of alcohol dependence and frequency of heavy drinking those first drunk before age 13 had 1.5 times greater odds of unplanned sex and 1.7 times greater odds of unprotected sex reportedly because of drinking. Conclusions: Clinical, educational, legal, and community interventions to delay age of first getting drunk need to be coupled with efforts to prevent unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse among US college students.

"
Holding Parents Accountable"--Parents who decide to begin teaching their children early to drink "responsibly" may want to rethink that position due to a growing number of laws going on the books. About.com 12-08-02.

 
Learning Disabilities and Drinking, About.com, January 16, 2003. Children with learning disabilities may be more likely to end up drinking, smoking and using drugs, according to research, but early recognition and treatment can prevent drug and alcohol abuse. (full text)

King, Charles, III; Siegel, Michael, Jernigan, David H., Wulach, Laura; Ross, Craig; Dixon, Karen; Ostroff, Joshua; "Adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising in magazines: an evaluation of advertising placement in relation to underage youth readership", JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH (December 2009), 45 (6): 626-33. Researchers compared ads in 118 magazines from 2002 to 2006. The researchers found a total of 13,513 alcohol advertisement during the five-year period of study. 23.1% of advertisements for adult alcoholic beverages appeared in magazines with high youth readership, 42.9% of advertisements for youth alcoholic beverage types were placed in the same magazines. In spite of denials to the contrary, the alcohol industry continues to target underage drinking by advertising beverages that appeal to young people in magazines with young readers. Representatives of the alcohol industry - the Wine Institute, the Beer Institute, and the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States - have repeatedly denied that they do not target underage youth with their advertising. See also CAMY.org

Kreichbaun, Norbert and Zering, Gerald, "Adolescent patients." In: HANDBOOK OF ALCOHOLISM, edited by Gerald Zering, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2000, pp. 129-136." Prognosis of abuse and dependence in adolescents is better compared to the prognosis in adults due to the developmental potential in adolescents. Manifest alcohol abuse and dependence in a developing person lad to developmental arrest and thus, to immature personality. Because of the shorter duration of possible abusive and dependent alcohol consumption, organ damage and psycho social impairment are less pronounced than in the adult (e.g. less liver damage, less neurological impairment, less social isolation). Dependence on alcohol develops faster than in the adults. A recent study found that 40% of patients who had started to drink at the age of 15 developed alcohol dependence during their lifetime, whereas 10% of those who had started to drink at age 21 to 22 developed alcohol abuse. The adolescent discovers parental mistakes and flaws and responds to them with disappointment. This disappointment leads to anger directed toward the parents, because they do not fulfill the wishful expectations of childhood. The risk of alcohol-induced organ damage and other negative consequences of alcohol abuse is almost always underestimated by adolescents. Substance-abusing adolescents are, as a general rule, are poly toxicomanic. Only 20 to 40 % of alcohol abusing adolescents stick to alcohol as their only drug of abuse; the remainder abuse drugs from a variety of chemical classes, either sequentially or simultaneously.

Komro, K,A,; Perry, C. L.; Veblen-Mortenson, S.; Farbakhsk, K.; Toomey, T. L.; Stigler, M. H.; Jones-Web, R.; Kugler, K. C.; Pasch, K. E.; Williams, C. L.; "Outcomes from a group-randomized controlled trial of a multi-component alcohol sue preventive intervention for urban youth: project northland Chicago", ADDICTION(2008), 103 (4): 606-18. Sixty-one public schools in Chicago were recruited to participate, where grouped into neighborhood study units and assigned randomly to intervention or "delayed" program control condition, The study sample was (n=5812 students) was primarily African American, Hispanic and low income. INTERVENTION: Students beginning in sixth grade (age 12 years), received 3 years of intervention strategies (curricula,family interventions, youth-led community service projects, community organizing). MEASUREMENTS: Students participated in yearly classroom -based survey to measure their alcohol use and related risk and protective factors. Additional evaluation components included a parent survey,a community leader survey and alcohol purchase attempts. FINDINGS: Overall, the intervention, compared with a control condition receiving "prevention as usual:, was not effective in reducing alcohol use,drug use or any hypothesized mediating variables. CONCLUSIONS: Study results indicate the importance of conducing evaluations of previously validated programs in contexts that differ from the original study sample. Also the findings highlight the need for further research with urban, low-income adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds to identify effective methods to prevent and reduce alcohol use

Kuperman, Samuel; Chan, Grace; Kramer, John R; Bierut, Laura ; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Fox, Louis ; Hesselbrock, Victor ; Numberger, John I. Jr.; Reich, Theodore; Reich, Wendy; Schuckit, Marc A.; Relationship of age of first drink to child behavioral problems and family psychopathology", ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH, 29(10):1906-1912, October 2005. 440 people from ages 7 to 17 were studied. "Studies have implicated a wide variety of variables as being associated with an early age of first drink (AFD). AFD in turn has been associated with a variety of negative outcomes in adolescence and early adulthood. This study is designed to quantify the contributions of these antecedent variables to prediction of AFD; in particular it will carefully examine the involvement of variables in four areas (child characteristics, family demographics, family psychopathology, and child behavior problems).

These included gender, age at interview, the number of adult sibs with alcohol dependence, being held back a year in school, and conduct scale score. However, the number of conduct symptoms appeared to contain the contributions of gender and being held back a grade in school, and these two variables were subsequently removed from the model. The remaining three variables explained 45% of the model variance; age at interview accounted for 38.3%, conduct scale score accounted for 6.2%, and the number of alcohol-dependent adult sibs accounted for 0.5%. No family history measures of alcohol dependence or antisocial personality disorder were contributory to the prediction model for AFD.

Both the "number of conduct symptoms" and the "number of adult sibs with alcohol dependence" are inversely associated with predicted AFD. The latter variable appears marginally predictive of AFD and suggests a condition in which the child's household, regardless of strength of family history of AD (or antisocial personality disorder), appears conducive to early drinking. Thus, child and environmental factors are stronger predictors of age of first drink than family history."

Lynskey, Michael T.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.; "Early-onset alcohol-use behaviors and subsequent alcohol-related driving risks in young women: a twin study", JOURNAL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUGS (2007), 68 (6): 798-804. The purpose of this study was to estimate associations between early-onset alcohol use/intoxication and subsequent risks of alcohol-related driving risks in young women after control for familial liability for these behaviors. Self-reported data on alcohol use and associated risks were collected from a representative sample of 3,786 Missouri-born adolescent female twins. After statistical control for familial liability to alcohol-related driving risks, alcohol dependence, and length of exposure to risk (i.e., time between the earlier of age at onset of drinking or age 16 [the minimum legal driving age in Missouri]), young women who reported early-onset alcohol use/intoxication had odds of alcohol-related driving risks that were from 1.6 to 2.2 times higher than those with a later onset of alcohol use or intoxication. Young women who commence drinking at an early age are at heightened risks for subsequent alcohol-related driving risks, and these associations cannot be explained entirely by familial liability for these behaviors.

Labouvie, Erich; Bates, Marsha E., "Reasons for alcohol use in young adulthood: validation of a three-dimensional measure". JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (2002) 65: 145-155. N+1,176, 598 women. 33 reasons for use. Conclusion Suppression reasons not only motivate reactive coping use in response to the appraisal of stressful situations, they are also likely to instigate "prophylactic" or proactive coping use in anticipation of the possible occurrence of stressors, thereby blunting the emotional impact of encounters that would otherwise have been appraised as stressful and aversive.

Lynskey, Michael T.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.; "Early-onset alcohol-use behaviors and subsequent alcohol-related driving risks in young women: a twin study:, JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL AND DRUGS (2007), 68 (7): 798-804. The purpose of this study was to estimate associations between early-onset alcohol use/intoxication and subsequent risks of alcohol-related driving risks in young women after control for familial liability for these behaviors. Method: Self-reported data on alcohol use and associated risks were collected from a representative sample of 3,786 Missouri-born adolescent female twins. Results: After statistical control for familial liability to alcohol-related driving risks, alcohol dependence, and length of exposure to risk (i.e., time between the earlier of age at onset of drinking or age 6 (the minimum legal driving age in Missouri), young women who reported early-onset alcohol use/intoxication had odds of alcohol-related driving risks that were from 1.6 to 2.2 times higher than those with a later onset of alcohol use or intoxication. Conclusions: Young women who commence drinking at an early age are at heightened risks for subsequent alcohol-related driving risks, and these associations cannot be explained entirely by familial liability for these behaviors.

Marcus, Adam, "AMA: alcohol damages teens' brains", HEALTHDAYNEWS REPORTER, December 9, 2002. Studies have found that adults need to drink twice as much alcohol as teens to experience the same level of harm. In addition, occasional drinking sprees can damage memory and cognition in adolescents. Roughly one-in-five youths ages 12 to 20 report binge drinking, having four or five drinks at a time.

Alcohol is implicated in the three leading causes of teen death: car wrecks, unintentional injuries like falls and drowning, and suicides and homicides. It is also a major factor in teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease like HIV.

 
McCarthy, Denis M., Brown, Sandra A.; "Changes in alcohol involvement, cognitions and drinking and driving behavior for youth after they obtain a driver's license," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (2004) 65: 289-296. The results indicate a number of changes in substance involvement after obtaining a driver's license. However, initially this transition may also indicate a period of protection against drinking and driving. These results may have implications for the target and content of drinking and driving interventions. These initial data on the relationship for youth between obtaining a driver's license and substance involvement indicate an increase in frequency of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use after they begin to drive independently.

McGue, Matt; "Origins and consequences of age of first drink. I. Associations with substance-use disorders, disinhibitory behavior and psychopathology, and P3 amplitude," , ALCOHOL CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (2001), 25 (8): 1156-1165. Although adolescents who take their first drink before age 15 tend to run a high risk of developing alcoholism, research suggests that early drinking is likely not the cause, but rather a symptom of a predisposition to alcoholism and a broad range of indicators of disinhibited behavior and psychopathology. Individuals who first drink at a relatively early age manifest elevates rates of disinhibitory behavior and psychopathology before they first try alcohol. Taken together, these finding suggest that the association of AFD with alcoholism reflects, at least in part, a common underlying vulnerability to disinhibitory behaviors.

Miller, JW; Naimi , TS; Brewer, RD; Jones, SE; "Binge Drinking an Associated Health Risk Behaviors Among High School Students", PEDIATRICS (2007),119 (1),76-85. "Binge drinking is the most common pattern of alcohol consumption among high school youth who drink alcohol and is strongly associated with a wide range of other health risk behaviors. Effective intervention strategies (e.g., enforcement of the minimum legal drinking age, screening and brief intervention, and increasing alcohol taxes) should be implemented to prevent underage alcohol consumption and adverse health and social consequences resulting from this behavior."

Miller, Ted R.; Levy, David T.; Spicer, Rebecca S.; Taylor, Dexter M.; "Societal costs of underage drinking", JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (2002), 67: 519-528. Underage drinking accounted for at least 16% of alcohol sales in 2001. It led to 3,170 deaths and 2.6 million other harmful events. The estimated $62.9 billion bill (relative SE+ 18.5%) included $5.4 billion in medical costs, $14.9 billion in work loss and other resource costs, and $41.6 billion in lost quality of life, which accounted for 67% of total costs, required challenging indirect measurement. Alcohol-attributable violence and traffic crashes dominated the costs. Leaving aside quality of life, the societal harm of $1 per drink consumed by an underage drinker exceeded the average purchase price of $0.90 or the associated $0.10 in tax revenues. Youth drinking behaviors merit the same kind of serious attention as alcohol and illicit drugs.

Miller, Tim, "The Limiting factor: the economic costs of underage drinking"; DRIVEN, Fall, 1999. From MADD.org

Molina, B., et al; "Adolescent substance use in the multimodal treatment study o Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a function of child ADHD, random assessment in childhood treatments, and subsequent medication", JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY, 28 December, 2012.
Some of the study's findings include: 35% of ADHD students had sued one or more substances, compared to 20% without ADHD; 10% experienced significant substance abuse problems, compared to 3% without ADHD; by age 17, almost 13% reported marijuana abuse or dependence, compared to 7% without ADHD; and 17% were daily cigarette smokers, compared to 8% without ADHD.

Monitoring the Future Survey
The Monitoring the Future Survey, conducted by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research and funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), at the National Institutes of Health, has tracked 12th graders' illicit drug use and attitudes towards drugs since 1975. In 1991, 8th and 10th graders were added to the study. The 2005 study surveyed more than 49,000+ students in 402 schools across the nation about their lifetime use, past year use, past month use, daily use of drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes and smokeless tobacco.

2016 Monitoring the Future Results--44,892 students from 382 public and private schools participated in the survey. Results from the Survey are released each fall. To get the latest information, check the links below. Included are previous year's results. Address: http://www.nida.nih.gov/DrugPages/mtf.html

Monti, Peter M.; Miranda, Robert, Jr.; Nixon, Kimberley; Sher, Kenneth J.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott, Tapert, Susan, White, Aaron, Crews, Fulton T.; "Adolescence: booze, brains and behavior", ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (2005); 29 (2): 207-220. The adolescent brain is designed to learn; yet the same plasticity that facilitates neuromaturation also renders it particularly vulnerable to the damaging effects of alcohol. Some of the findings presented were:
-The neurochemical, cellular, synaptic, and structural organization of the adolescent brain makes it more vulnerable than the adult brain to disruption from activities such as binge drinking. Adolescent rats that were exposed to binge drinking appear to have permanent damage in their adult brains.
-Research has identified subtle but important brain changes occurring among adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), resulting in a decreased ability in problem solving, verbal and nonverbal retrieval, visuospatial skills, and working memory.
-The association between antisocial behavior during adolescence and alcoholism may be explained by abnormalities int he frontal limbic system, which appears to cause "blunted emotional reactivity".
-Alcohol-induced memory impairments, such as "blackouts", are particularly common among young drinkers and may be at least in part due to disrupted neural plasticity in the hippocampus, which is centrally involved in the formation of autobiographical memories.
- The symposium concluded that many serious adult mental disorders have their onset during childhood, and are risk factors for heavy alcohol involvement, especially attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and bipolar spectrum disorders. The nature and extent of alcohol's effects on the neurodevelopmental and clinical aspects of these disorders should be a priority.

 
More Alcohol Ads Targeted at Youth--"The alcohol industry is not exactly practicing what it preaches when it comes to targeting underage drinkers with advertising, according to a report by Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth at Georgetown University. About.com October 7, 2002, see CAMY.org.


Muthen, Bengt O.; Muthen, Linda K.; " The development of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems from ages 18 to 37 in a U. S. national sample," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (2000), 81 (2): 290-300. " N=7859 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Results: A key finding is that dropping out of high school has no effect on alcohol-related problems for individuals in the mid-twenties, but is associated with significantly increased levels of alcohol-related problems for individuals in their mid thirties, in contrast, going on to college is associated with lower levels of heavy drinking when individuals reach their late twenties and their thirties. Strong gender and ethnicity effects seen in the twenties diminish when individuals reach their thirties. Conclusions: The trajectory analysis expands the knowledge of problematic alcohol development for individuals in their late twenties and thirties. The increasing detrimental effect of dropping out of high school up to the age 37 endpoint of the study raises questions about the effects in later life of dropping out of high school."

NAS Underage Drinking Prevention Study, for information related to Federal Policy, CSIP Newsletter January 15, 2003. The committee of experts appointed by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to develop a cost-effective national strategy to prevent underage drinking held two public meetings during the fall of 2002.

Nelson, T. F; Wechsler, H.; "School spirits: alcohol and collegiate sports fans", ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS (2003), 28 (1), 1-11. Studies have addressed alcohol use and related problems among college athletes, little is known about the drinking patterns of non-athletes who are sports fans. This study examines the relationship between alcohol use and interest in collegiate sports on two levels. First, do fans in college binge drink more and exhibit more negative alcohol-related outcomes than other students? Second, do colleges with large numbers of sports fans have higher rates of heavy drinking and accompanying secondhand effects affecting other students? The responses of 3445 student sports fans were compared to those 8405 students who were not sports fans. More sports fans drank alcohol, engaged in binge drinking, had a heavy drinking style and reported alcohol-related problems than non fans. The percentage of sports fans at a school was associated with binge drinking rates and the secondhand effects. The implications for those working with college athletics and for alcohol prevention personnel are discussed.

Nicklin, Julie L., "Drug and alcohol arrests increased on campuses in 2000," CHRONICLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION (2002), 48 (21): 32-39. Reports on the increase in the number of drug and alcohol arrests at colleges in the United States in 2000. Details of crimes of associated drug and alcohol abuse, implications of the increased crime rate on campuses, and actions taken by the Education Department. University of Iowa ranked 5th with 127 drug arrests.

O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; "Drugs and driving in American high school seniors, 2001-2006", JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL AND DRUGS (2007), 68 (6):834-42. The aim of this study was to report trends from 2001 to 2006 in the percentage of all high school seniors who drive after using marijuana, other illicit drugs, or alcohol or who are exposed as passengers to such behaviors. A second objective is to examine demographic and psychosocial correlates of these behaviors. The data were obtained from the Monitoring the Future study, in which nationally representative samples of high school seniors have been surveyed annually since 1975. In 2006, 30% of high school seniors reported exposure to a drugged or drinking driver in the past 2 weeks, down from 35% in 2001. Exposure was demonstrated to be widespread as defined by demographic characteristics (population density, region of the country, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and family structure). Individual lifestyle factors (religiosity, grade point average, truancy, frequency of evenings out for fun, and hours of work) showed considerable association with the outcome behaviors. Impaired driving by youth remains a problem needing serious attention despite some progress in recent years.

Paschall, Mallie J.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lipton, Robert I.; "Moderate alcohol use and depression in young adults: findings from a National Longitudinal Study", AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH (2005), 95 (3): 453-457. A examination of the association between moderate alcohol use and depressive mood among young adults before and after adjustment for demographic, health, and socioeconomic factors that may act as confounders. Conclusions. Moderate alcohol use may have no effect on depression in young adults relative to abstinence from alcohol use.

Risk Factors: 1) positive family history of alcohol abuse, compulsive behavior, depression or personality disorders; 2) early onset of drinking; 3) dysfunctional family, especially conflicts, divorce of parents, physical and/or verbal abuse, traumata, neglect; 4) lack of role model for moderate alcohol consumption; 5) previous or present learning disorder and attention deficit disorder; 6) preexisting depression; 7) anxiety disorder or obsessive compulsive disorder with frequent social withdrawal; 8) easy access to alcohol; 9) sociocultural background favoring alcohol consumption; and 10) alcohol-abusing peer groups.

Pitkanen, Tuuli, Lyyra, Anna-Lisa, Pulkkinen, Lea; "Age of onset of drinking and the use of alcohol in adulthood: a follow-up study from age 8-42 for females and males", ADDICTION (2005), 100: 652-661. Findings: Early onset of drinking was related to the four indicators of the use of alcohol in adulthood both in men and women. The level of adult alcohol use and alcohol problems was significantly higher in men. The risk for heavy drinking was highest in men and women if drinking was started at less than age 16 years. Socio-emotional behavior and school success at age 8 did not predict the age of onset of drinking. Conclusion: Delaying the initiation of drinking from early adolescence to late adolescence is an important goal for prevention efforts. No clear risk group for early initiators of drinking could be identified on the basis of preceding behavior among 8-year-olds.

Quindlen, Anna; "The drug that pretends it isn't", NEWSWEEK (04/10/2000), 135 (15): 88p. Discusses the reluctance of people in the United States to refer to alcohol as a drug. The role of alcohol-abuse in accidents, health problems, and crime, and its annual cost to the U. S. economy; The notion that the fight against illicit drugs should be given priority over alcohol-related problems; The inability of some people to drink in moderation; The proposed use of alcohol excise-taxes to combat alcohol abuse; Factors affecting underage drinking in the U. S.

Reisberg, Leo, "2 years after colleges started calling home, administrators say alcohol policy works", CHRONICLE OF HIGHER EDUCTION (2001), 47 (19): 34-38. The article deals with the effectiveness of parental notification policies of colleges in the United States in reducing binge drinking among college students. Role of parents in regulating student behavior, results of survey on the effectiveness of the regulation, and loophole in the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.

Rice, J. P.; Neuman, R. J.; Saccone, N. L.; Corbett, J.; Rochberg, N.; Hasselbrock, V.; Bucholz, K. K.; McGuffin, P.; "Age and birth cohort effects on rates of alcohol dependence", ALCOHOLISM CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (2003), 27 (1): 93-9. In the sample, they observed higher rates of alcoholism in more recently born individuals; analysis of family history information indicated a higher rate of alcoholism in relatives who were deceased; and co-morbid diagnoses of antisocial personality or depression, as well as cigarette smoking were predictors of risk. The family history indicates that alcoholics may die younger, so that a bias is introduced when only living individual are surveyed.

For example, Rice said, "the rate of alcoholism in female relatives born between 1950 and 1959, as well as those born between 1960 and 1979, was about 30%, compared to 4.5% in female relatives born before 1929. In the controls, the rate was 13% in recently born women, compared to 2.3% in women born during the 1930's. These are dramatic differences. A similar effect is seen in men, but not as pronounced."

Rutledge, Patricia C., "21st birthday drinking: extremely extreme", AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (2008), 76 (3): 511-516. "Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday drinkers indicated high levels of consumption, (c) 12% of birthday drinkers (men and women) reported consuming 21 drinks, and (d) abut half of birthday drinkers exceeded their piror maximum number of drinks. Current problematic alcohol involvement and its typical correlates strongly predicted both the occurrence and severity of 21st birthday drinking. It is imperative that investigators consider a variety of potential interventions to minimize the harm associated with this rite of passage." The authors found that 68% of females and 79% of the males had estimated BACs of 0.08 BAC or higher on their birthday, or over the legal limit for intoxication all 50 states. Almost half of the men (49%) and 35% of the women has estimated BACs of 0.26. The researchers noted that a blood alcohol content level of 0.26 is associated with "potential serious medical outcomes," including disorientation, coma and even death. 36% of student who never drink when they were underage participated in drinking to celebrate their 21st birthday.

Shepherd JP ; Sutherland I ; Newcombe RG; "Relations between alcohol, violence and victimization in adolescence", JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENCE ( 2006) Aug; 29(4): 539-53. "OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there is a significant relationship between vulnerability to physical violence and alcohol consumption in adolescence independent of a relationship between alcohol consumption and violent behaviour. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional study of 4187 adolescents aged 11-16 in a stratified sample of 13 English schools. RESULTS: Fighting decreased with age whereas hitting others and being hit increased. Relationships between fighting, hitting others and vulnerability to being hit and frequency of drinking and drunkenness were all highly significant (p<0.0001), and were evident at all ages. The outcome most strongly related to frequency of drunkenness was hitting others (odds ratio (OR) 6.62), followed by being hit (OR 4.01) and fighting (OR 2.10). Alcohol consumption and drunkenness remained significantly and independently associated with vulnerability to being hit after adjusting for violent behaviour as well as age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate an association between alcohol and victimization independent of associations of both with physical aggression. Reducing intoxication may reduce victimization without necessarily affecting violent behaviour. Violence reduction should focus as much on preventing alcohol misuse among victims or potential victims as among offenders."

Shope, Jean T., Bingham, C. Raymond; "Drinking-driving as a component of problem drinking and problem behavior in young adults", JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (2002) 63:24-33. Telephone survey data (measure of drinking driving, drug-driving, risky driving, problem drinking, drug use and delinquent behavior) collected from young adults (N=4230, 53% female) were used in structural equation modeling. Two models were developed--one for problem driving and one for problem behavior--each testing the structural associations among latent variables and testing them as latent indicators of common second-order variables. The results supported the hypothesis that drinking-driving (along with problem drinking, drug use and delinquent behavior) is an indicator of problem behavior in the general population sample. Also, drinking-driving, drug-driving and risky driving were demonstrated to be indicators of a common construct: problem driving. The model fits the data equally well for both young men and young women. The results have important implications for research and for interventions to treat or prevent drinking-driving, especially among young adults.

The Smoking Gun (Report)
The CASA white paper cites more than a dozen scientific studies that may explain the factors that contribute to the relationship between smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol. Some of the factors include:
- Nicotine exposure at any early age may cause neurological changes which an increase teen vulnerability
- Animal studies have show a "distinct temporal link between nicotine exposure and alcohol consumption" a progression from cigarette use to alcohol use
- Nicotine increases dopamine levels in the brain which increases a propensity for alcohol and the amount of alcohol consumed
- Smoking nicotine increases nicotine receptors, also known as upregulation, especially in adolescents. Also the research cited dozens of studies, with both animals and humans, that demonstrate that nicotine use causes complex changes in the brain that make adolescents more vulnerable to marijuana, cocaine and cocaine.

Comparing adolescents aged 12-17 who don't smoke, to teens who do the CASA study found:
--five times more likely to drink
--13 times more likely to use marijuana

Comparing those who started to smoke before age 12 to nonsmokers the study found:
--more than three times more likely to binge drink
--nearly 15 times more likely to smoke marijuana
--nearly seven times more likely to sue heroin and cocaine

Smoking and mental health disorders
The CASA study found that among teens who smoke cigarettes:
--twice as likely to suffer depression in the past years
--more likely to experience hopelessness, depression and worthlessness
--more likely to report panic attack and general anxiety disorders
--more likely to report post-traumatic stress disorder
http://verywell.com/teen-pitfalls-stress-boredom-extra-money-63732

"Teenage girls: increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drug use", "Partnership for a Drug-Free American (2009), www.drugfree.org "Use the search box for alcohol teenage and girls", "Scientific research has found that teenage girls are vulnerable to a number of unique physical, psychological and social risk factors for drug and alcohol use. More than three times as many young females as males reported depression in 2008 (2009 NSDUH). Stress has been identified as a leading reason for drinking, smoking, and using drugs among girls (The Commonwealth Fund, 1997) Boys are more likely to report drinking to have fun (The Commonwealth Fund, 1997).

The Partnership/MetLife Foundation Attitude Tracking Study provides additional insights to the above research. Girls are significantly more likely that boys to give reasons related to stress and low self-esteem for teens' use of drugs. On the other hand,boys are more likely to cite having fun and relaxing as reasons for use. . .

Importantly, girls were more likely in 2009 than in 2008 to perceive "self-medicating" benefits of using drugs (forgetting your trouble, helping kids with problems) and perceptions of fun and relaxation significantly increased among boys.

The research indicates that parents of teen girls should be especially attentive to the moods and mental health of their daughters. Parents can help prevent alcohol and drug abuse by addressing their daughters' worries and stresses and by supporting heir positive actions."

The Toll of Underaged Drinking from the Center For Disease Control http://camy.org/factsheets/sheets/The_Toll_of_Underage_Drinking.html

Truong, K. D.; Stir,. R.; "Alcohol environments and disparities in exposure associated with adolescent drinking in California", AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH (Feb., 2009) 99 (2):264-70. The authors investigated sociodemographic disparities in alcohol environments and their relationship with adolescent drinking. Methods: They geocoded and mapped alcohol license data with ArcMap to construct circular buffers centered at 14,595 households with children that participated in the California Health Interview Survey. They calculated commercial sources of alcohol in each buffer. Multivariate logistic regression differentiated the effects of alcohol sales on adolescents' drinking from their individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics. Results: Alcohol availability, measured by mean and median numbers of licenses, was significantly higher around residences of minority and lower-income families. Binge drinking and driving after drinking among adolescents ages 12 to 17 years was significantly associated with the presence of alcohol retailers within 0.5 miles of home. Simulation of changes in the alcohol environment showed that if alcohol sales were reduced from the mean number of alcohol outlets around the lowest-income quartile of households to that of the highest quartile, prevalence of binge drinking would fall from 6.4% to 5.6% and driving after drinking from 7.9% to 5.9%. Conclusions: Alcohol outlets are concentrated in disadvantage neighborhoods and can contribute to adolescent drinking. To reduce underage drinking, environmental interventions need to curb opportunities for you to obtain alcohol from commercial sources by tightening licensure, enforcing minimum-age drinking laws, or other measures.

Underage Drinking: A Major Public Health Challenge, , April, 2003.
"The immediate and long&endash;term risks associated with adolescent alcohol use underscore the need for effective prevention and treatment programs. Studies have revealed genetic, biologic, developmental, and environmental influences on underage drinking.

Scientists have found that variability is a crucial aspect of alcohol problems across all age groups and this is a key consideration in alcohol research. There is a three&endash; to fourfold between&endash;individual variation in the rate of absorption, distribution, and elimination of alcohol (pharmacokinetics) and a two&endash; to threefold between&endash;individual variation in the sensitivity of the brain to the effects of a given concentration of alcohol (pharmacodynamics). Understanding the underlying causes of this variability, both genetic and nongenetic, should provide insights into underage drinking and binge&endash;drinking patterns.

Through prevention and intervention strategies directed at the individual, family, school, and community, we aim to provide knowledge and change belief systems and social norms to reinforce the message that underage alcohol use is unacceptable. We also aim to enhance young peoples' self-esteem, self&endash;motivation, and identity formation to enable them to take responsibility for their own health by making informed, deliberate, and healthy choices regarding alcohol use.

Various intervention tools have brought about positive behavioral change with regard to underage drinking. Further studies will follow cohorts of young people from childhood through the college years, at different locations and in different settings, to determine whether these interventions are enduring and broadly applicable. Finding lasting solutions to such an entrenched problem will not be easy, but we are confident that diligent research efforts will meet this urgent challenge."
http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa59.htm

"Underage drinking in the United States: a status report, 2004", (February, 2005), The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth.
7,000 young people under 16 have their first drink every day (Sept. 2004, SAMHSA)

In May, 2004, the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released survey data from 2003 showing that the gender gap among younger drinkers has closed, although other federal surveys show that the gap widens again by 12th grade. According to the CDC, more ninth-and 10th-grade girls are currently drinking than ninth- and 10th-grade boys. Ninth-grade girls are more likely than their male peers to binge drink as well.

According to MTF, 55.8% of high school seniors reported using "alcopops" in 2004, a level that is virtually unchanged from 2003. Among current drinkers, 78.5% of eighth-graders, 71.3% of 10th-graders and 64.8% of 12-graders reported drinking "alcopops" in the past month.

In November 2004, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) concluded that alcohol abuse and dependence are "developmental disorders".

An analysis published in the November 15, 2004 issue of BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY stated that the onset of alcohol dependence peaks by 18 years of age.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released in September, 2004 a new annual estimate on the number of underage deaths due to excessive alcohol use: 4,

Brain researchers using brain scanning technology, have identified how they believe alcohol use may cause loss of memory and other skills in adolescents.

Utah has lowest use of illicit drugs; Alaska the Highest (SAMHSA from the State Substance Abuse Data from the 2003 NATIONAL SURVEY ON DRUG USE AND HEALTH). Utah has the lowest rate of illicit drug use in the last 30 days as well as the lowest rate for binge drinking. Alaska has the highest rate for illegal drug use, while North Dakota has the highest rate for bingeing on alcohol. Binge alcohol use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least one day in the 30 days prior to the survey. North Dakota had the highest rate, 31.4. Colorado, Montana, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Massachusetts and Rhode Island also had high rates of binge drinking. Kansas and Iowa and the lowest rate of dependence or abuse, 2.5 percent.

Underage alcohol use: findings from the 2002-2006 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health", June 2008. More than 40% of underage drinkers in the United States get their alcohol free from adults age 21 and a significant percentage of them get it from their own parents or guardians. According to a nationwide survey the the Substance Abuse and mental Health Services Administration(SAMHSA), more than 40% of the estimated 10.8 million underage drinkers in the past month got their alcohol free from adults. The study revealed that 6.4% of those drinkers, ages 12 to 20, were provided free alcohol by their own parents or guardians.

"In far too many instances, parents directly enable their children's underage drinking -- in essence, encouraging them to risk their health and well-being." said Acting Surgeon General Steve K. Galson, MD, MPH, in a new release' "Proper parental guidance alone may not be the complete solution to this devastating public health problem, but it is a critical part."

The SAMHSA survey asked young people, ages 12 to 20, about the nature and scope of their drinking behavior, and for the first time, asked about the social conditions under which they drink. The survey confirms an earlier study, which found that more than 1/3 of middle school students got their alcohol from their own parents or from a friend's parents or guardians.

According to the SAMHSA report these are some of the survey's significant findings: 
- More than half (53.9%) of all people ages 12 to 2o engaged in underage drinking in their lifetime, ranging from 11% of 12-year-olds to 85.5% of 20 year-olds.
- An average of 3.5 million people (9.4%), ages 12 to 20, meet the diagnostic criteria for having an alcohol-use disorder each year.
- About one in five people in this age group (7.2 million people) have engaged in binge drinking: consuming five or more drinks on at least one occasion in the past month.
- The vast majority of current underage drinkers (80%) reported being with two or more people the last time they drank. Those who were with two or more people consumed an average of 4.9 drinks on that occasion, compared with 3.1 drinks for those who were with another person and 2.9 drinks for those who were alone. _ Among youths, ages 12 to 14, the rate of current drinking was higher for females (7.7%) than males (6.3%) -- about equal for females and males among those ages 15 to 17 (27.3%, respectively) and lower for females than males among those ages 18 to 20 (47.9%) vs. 54.4 %).
- More than half (53.4%) of underage current alcohol users were at someone else's home when they had their last drink, and 30.3% were in their own home; 9.4% were at a restaurant, bar or club.
- Rate of binge drinking are significantly higher among young people living with a parent who engaged in binge drinking within the past year.

More than 5,000 death a year are attributed to underage drinking in the United States. Parents and guardians of children ages 12 to 20 can have a great influence on their attitudes about drinking and substance abuse in general. As this study shows, that influence can be negative or positive.

VanHeusden, Kathleen; Lenthe, Frank J.; Mulder, Cornelis L.; van der Ende, Ian, Van de Mheen, Dike; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; " Patterns of association between alcohol consumption and internalizing and externalizing problems in young adults", JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS (2008), 69: 49-57. Non drinkers and excessive drinkers differ from low-level drinkers in risk factors for poor mental health, and these factors may contribute to their elevated rates of mental health problems. Interventions that address the experience of negative social exchange may produce both mental health benefits and a reduction of excessive drinking.

Wagenaar, Alexander C.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; LaFond, Colette; "Lowered legal blood alcohol limits for young drivers: effects on drinking, driving, and driving-after-drinking behaviors in 30 states," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH (May, 2001), 91 (5): 801-804. This study evaluated the effects on drinking and driving of lowered allowable blood alcohol concentration limits for drivers younger than 21 years in 30 U. S. states between 1984 and 1998. Measures were based on self-reports form a cross-sectional sample of more than 5000 high school seniors in 30 states surveyed before and after BAC limits per implemented in their states. Frequency of driving after any drinking and driving after 5 or more drinks declined 19% and 23%, respectively. Lower BAC limits did not affect overall amount of drinking or total number of miles driven. Conclusions: significant beneficial effects of lowered youth BAC limits have appeared despite limited publicity and enforcement of new laws."

Wechsler, Henry, "Binge drinking should we attack the name or the problem?", CHRONICLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION (2000), 47 (8): 12-15. Deals with the existence of binge drinking among students in the United States. Definition of binge drinking according to a study the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study, organizations which demand for the removal of the term binge from media coverage of college drinking; binge drinking themes discovered by a study. To one degree or another, binge drinking affects nearly every college and university in American. We're dumbfounded that some people in the field of higher education think the convening to abolish the 'b-word' will solve the problem. Do they truly believe that calling it by another name will make it go away?
Comment: the medical research field defines binge drinking, why aren't some of these higher education people reading the research?

Weitzman, E. R.; Nelson, T. E; Wechsler, H.; "Taking up binge drinking in college: the influences of person, social group, and environment", THE JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH (2003) 32 (1): 26-35. To identify person, social group, and environmental factors associated with uptake of binge drinking amount a national sample of college students. Results: College students who reported that they were exposed to 'wet" environments were more likely to engage in binge drinking than were peers without similar exposures. Wet environments included social, residential, and market surroundings in which drinking is prevalent and alcohol cheap and easily accessed. Findings held up in multivariate analyses that included variables describing person and social group characteristics. Student who picked up binge drinking in college were also more likely than their peers to report inflated definitions of binge drinking and more permissive attitudes about appropriate ages for legal consumption. Conclusions: Reducing college binge uptake may require efforts to limit access/availability, control chap prices, and maximize substance free environments and associations.

Wechsler, Henry, "Study documents secondhand impact of binge drinking", CHRONICLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION (2000), 48 (44): 36. Focuses on the results of the report 'Secondhand Effects of Student alcohol Use Reported by Neighbors of Colleges: the Role of Alcohol Outlets," by the Harvard School of Public Health. Culture of binge drinking among colleges students, definition of binge drinking for men and women, focus of the limited practices of marketing alcoholic beverages suggested by researchers.

William, A. F., "Young driver risk factors: successful and unsuccessful approaches for dealing with them and an agenda for the future", PREVENTION (2006), 12 (Supplement 1), 14-18:10.1136. "The extent to which various interventions to deal with the young driver crash problem have wooed are discussed, and promising interventions that should be tried are identified. Traditional forms of drive licensing and driver education have not worked. Graduated licensing reduces the problem and existing laws need to be strengthened. Programs involving parents and police have shown some potential to increase compliance with graduated licensing restrictions. Insurer discount programs also have potential. In other public health areas, comprehensive programs have worked better than those based on single components. There are continuing efforts to develop new driver education and training programs and methods of delivery that can combine with graduated licensing and contribute to reductions in the young driver problem. The most promising intervention strategy is likely to be a coordinated community based problem in states with strong graduated licensing laws as a foundation, involving modern enforcement and education programs featuring parens and police in combination, with as much input and partnership as possible from the target group of young drivers."

Wong, Maria M.; Brower, Kirk J.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.; Sleep problems in early childhood and early onset of alcohol and other drug use in adolescence", ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM (April, 2004), 28 (4): 578-587. This study prospectively examines the relationship between sheep problems and early onset of alcohol use, a marker of increased risk for later alcohol problems and alcohol use disorders. Moreover, early childhood sleep problems seem to be a robust marker for use of drugs other than alcohol. Implications for the prevention of early onset drug use are discussed.

Wuethrich, Bernice; "Getting stupid," DISCOVER (2001), March : 56-63. New research indicates that teenagers who drink too much may lose as much as 10 percent of their brainpower--the difference between passing and failing in school and life. In developing brains alcohol use over time has been shown to shrink the hippo campus as shown through MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) tests.

York, James L.; Welte, John, Hirsch, Judith; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Barnes, Grace; "Association of age of first drink with current alcohol drinking variables in a national general population sample". ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (2004), 28 (9): 1379-1387. Conclusions: Age of first drink may be a useful predictive variable for some current drinking measures, including predicted peek blood alcohol levels as well as lifetime alcohol pathology. Further support was provided for the "convergence" hypothesis that the drinking habits of women have become more like those of men.

Young, Amy; Grey, Melissa; Abbey, Antonia; Boyd, Carol J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban, "Alcohol-related sexual assault victimization among adolescents: prevalence, characteristics, and correlates", JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS (2008), 68: 39-48. A Web-based, self-administered survey was used to collect data on 7th- through 12th grade students (n=1037) in a large Midwest metropolitan area. Results: Findings from the study indicate that alcohol was involved in approximately 12%-20% of the assault cases, depending on age and gender of the respondent. For females, the presence of alcohol during assault differed significantly based on the location at which the assault occurred, ranging from 6% (at the survivor's home) to 29% (at parties or some else's home.) Furthermore, alcohol-related assault among females was more likely to involve physical force than non-alcohol-related assault.

 

updated 12/26/16