KURT M. DUBOWSKI, Ph.D.


B.Sc. in chemistry and biology from New York University; undergraduate work done in chemical engineering at Ohio State University. M. S. in chemistry and toxicology and Ph.D. from Ohio State University in 1949.

Director of Chemistry, Iowa Methodist Hospital and at the Raymond Blank Memorial Hospital for Children. Criminalist, State of Iowa, Department of Public Safety (1959).

J. Hillis Miller Health Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, (1959)

University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (1963) where he is still listed on the faculty and has an e-mail address there. In 1980 he won the Widmark Award from ICADTS. Dr. Dubowski is a noted authority on breath alcohol.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

This bibliography may not be a complete listing of all published articles.

Borkenstein, R. F.; Dubowski, K. M.; "Breath alcohol absorption tube compatible with head space gas chromatography for blood and alcohol analysis. . . ," JOURNAL OF TRAFFIC MEDICINE (1977), 5: 29-33.

Clark, M.; Dubowski, K.; Colmore, J.; "The Effect of chlorpromazine on serum cholesterol in chronic schizophrenic patients," CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGICAL THERAPY (1976). 11 (6): 883-9.

Dubowski, K., "Absorption, distribution and elimination of alcohol: highway safety aspects," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1985), Supplement (10 July): 98-108. (This paper was presented as part of a summer conference in a supplement to the journal. It is not peer reviewed. The journal is peer reviewed.) Pages 99-100 Table 1 not found in article cited, Dubowski, K. M., "Human pharmacokinetics of ethanol: further studies," CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1976b), 22, 1199. On page 101 paragraph 2 he states there were "134 adult men in the post absorptive state" there were 78 men in the study, (Dubowski, 22, 1199. On Table 2 "N = 79 + 69 + 145 " [(sic)148]. Table 2 shows data which was not published in study cited, (Dubowski,1976, 22:1199).

Page 103 paragraph 3, Dubowski makes note of "circadian shifts". "Others were unable to demonstrate significant time of day-related differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters".(See work by Sturdevant, Ruthann.)

Page 103 paragraph 5, "The same phenomenon is illustrated in Figure 2, which consists of six representative breath alcohol versus time curves obtained in the studies of Dubowski (1976b). These figures were never published in that study--Dubowski, K. M., "Human pharmacokinetics of ethanol: further studies, CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1976b), 22, 1199.

Page 105 paragraph 4, Dubowski states "curves in figures 2A -F . . . show simultaneous blood alcohol and breath alcohol concentrations in the course of the experiments that yielded the curves in Figures 2A-F from Dubowski, KM and O'Neill, B, "The blood/breath ratio, of ethanol, CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1976), 25 (6):1144. The graphs are marked Breath-alcohol--all of them on page 104. [Where are the blood alcohol graphs? They (the six graphs) don't appear in the abstract from CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1976), 25 (6):1144 as cited.]

Page 106 paragraph 3, "Breath alcohol time curves are subject to . . . Fifth significantly large short-term fluctuations occur in some subjects and results in marked positive and negative departures from the alcohol concentration trend line. Sixth, short-term marked oscillation of the blood or breath alcohol concentration can occur at various points of the curve, resulting in repeated excursion of the alcohol concentration above and below a given concentration within a few minutes or hours."

In "Human pharmacokinetics of ethanol: further studies", Dubowski states there are "78 normal male volunteers" however, on the chart under N there are "All 142". On the next column "N is 133" at the bottom. "We conclude that zero-order kinetics apparently do not apply to post absorptive BAC decline with time, and that speculative retrograde extrapolation of BAC is unwarranted." [Why are the numbers different? We don't know if these are blood or breath alcohol concentrations or did he take the two and average them? Why are the number of subjects different in each N column? Why not break out the data by administered amount since three levels were use? Not peer reviewed.]

Dubowski, K. M.; "Alcohol analysis...," LABORATORY MANAGEMENT (1982), 20 (3): 43-54.

Dubowski, K. and, Essary, Natalie A.; "Alcohol analysis of stored whole-breath samples by automated gas chromatography," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY ( 1982), 6, September/October: 217-221.

Dubowski, K. M.; "Alcohol and Traffic Safety," U. S. Dept. of Housing, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Publication No. 1043, 1961.

Dubowski, K., "Alcohol determination in the clinical laboratory," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY (1980) 74: 747. (abstract)

Dubowski, K. M.: and Caplan, Y. H.; "Alcohol testing in the workplace," In Medicolegal aspects of alcohol, 3rd ed., J. C. Garriott ed., Lawyers and Judges Publishing, Tuscon, AZ, 1996, p439-75.

Dubowski, K.; Essary, Natalie A.; "Analysis of alcohol in breath after sorption on molecular sieve," CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1980), 26: 1047. (abstract)

Dubowski, K.; "An automated gas chromatographic method for analysis of ethanol in breath," CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1974), 20: 861. (abstract)

Dubowski, K. M., "Biological aspects of breath-alcohol analysis," CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1974), 20 (2): 294-9.

Dubowski, K.; O'Neill, B.; "The Blood/breath ratio of ethanol," CLINICAL CHEMISTRY(1979), 25: 114. (abstract)

Dubowski, K.; "Breath-alcohol analysis after sorption on calcium sulfate: in vitro and in vivo studies," In: Goldberg, L., ed. ALCOHOL, DRUGS, AND TRAFFIC SAFETY, Stockholm, June, 1980. Vol. II Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International, 1981, p637-47.

Dubowski, K., and Essary, Natalie A.; "Breath-alcohol analysis on duplicate samples," ALCOHOL, DRUGS and TRAFFIC SAFETY. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., 1987, p373-77.

Dubowski, K. M., "Breath-alcohol analysis : uses, methods, and some forensic problems--review and opinion. . ." JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCE (1976), 21: 9-41.

Dubowski, K., "Breath-alcohol simulators : scientific basis and actual performance," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1979), 3: 177-82.

Dubowski, K., "Breath-alcohol testing : disposable breath tester. Final Report. Part 1," Contract No. DOT -HS-7-07195, Washington, D. C., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U. S. Department of Transportation, 1980b.

Dubowski, K., "Breath analysis as a technique in clinical chemistry," CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1974), 20 (8): 966-72.

Dubowski, K., "Breath collection device for delayed breath alcohol analysis". Final report, Part 2. Contract No. DOT-HS-7-01795 (HS 805 898). Washington, D. C., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U. S. Department of Transportation, December, 1980.

Dubowski, K. M.; Essary, N. A.; "Calcium sulfate sorption for remote sampling in breath-alcohol analysis," CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1978), 24 (6): 1031.

Dubowski, K. M., "Collection and later analysis of breath-alcohol after calcium sulfate sorption {letter}," CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1977) 23 (7): 1271-3.

Dubowski, K.; Essary, N. A., "Contamination of blood specimens for alcohol analysis during collection," ABSTRACTS AND REVIEWS IN ALCOHOL AND DRIVING, (1983), 4: 3. (abstract)

Dubowski, K. M.; "Detection and determination of alcohol and drugs. . ."; In: L. Goldberg, ed., ALCOHOL, DRUGS, AND TRAFFIC SAFETY, Stockholm, Sweden: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1981, Vol. II, 876p. (pp. 815-817).

Dubowski, K., "Drug-use testing : scientific perspectives," NOVA LAW REVIEW (1987) 11: 415-52.

Dubowski, K., Drug-use testing in the workplace : law and science, Eau Claire, WI : PESI Legal Publishing, 1990.

Dubowski, K., "Evaluation of Borg-Warner Corporation Breath-Alcohol Screening Device," ANNALS OF CLINICAL AND LABORATORY SCIENCE (1973) 3 (4):308. (abstract).

Dubowski, K.; Essary, Natalie A., "Evaluation of commercial breath-alcohol simulators : further studies," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1991), 15, (September/October): 272-275.

Dubowski, Kurt M(ax); "An Evaluation of methods for the determination of ethyl-alcohol in biological materials". (Abstract of Ph.D. paper in Dissertation Abstracts Vol. W1950, Page 30, 56 pages. Not in volume cited. Not even listed on table of contents.)

Dubowski, K. M.; Schaefer, C. F.; Gunn, C. G.; "Excretion of urinary cannabinoids after marihuana (sic) smoking," CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1977), 6: 1158-9. (abstract)

Dubowski, K.; Essary, Natalie A.; "Field performance of current generation breath-alcohol simulators," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1992), 16 (September/October):325-327.

Dubowski, K. M.,; "Free radical assay technique for drugs {application to opiate analysis)," ANNALS OF CLINICAL AND LABORATORY SCIENCE (1971) 1 (3): 199-207.

Dubowski, K. M.; "Human pharmacokinetics of ethanol. . .," 7th International Meeting of Forensic Sciences, Zurich, Switzerland: 8-12 Sep. 1975, 16p.

Dubowski, K. M.; "Human pharmacokinetics of ethanol," INTERNATIONAL MICROFORM JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE (1975), 10 (4): 1-16. Deviations when comparing ATR article and IMJLM article. The journal article from ALCOHOL TECHNICAL REPORTS was based on this article. Such was noted at the bottom of the article as being a revised version.

Pages 1-2 verbatim.

Page 3: "(27 males, aged 21-50 years, and 14 females, aged 23-46 years)" is the only alteration.

Page 4 is verbatim.

Page 5: Table 2 all of the values have been changed except for the number of males (N=27), number of females (N=14) and Total (N-41). At bottom of page 5 "were obtained by direct analysis of blood specimens and were not derived from the results of breath-alcohol analysis" is omitted from the ATR document. Females S.D. + 21.6 was the same. All other values were higher except the C.V. values which were all lower, even though the number of subjects remain constant.

Page 6: Under Figure 2 "(The Least Squares Regression Equation for These Date is Y=110.5X + 3.8, with r+0.966)" this value is higher than ATR. These are all different values compared to the ATR document. Table 3 n + 40 and range 14-138 same as ATR.

Page 7: :The data for "38 subjects, for rate of BAC decrease with time in the post absorptive period are summarized in Table 4, expressed as hourly clearance rates, B 60." (40 subjects ATR). "From the individual vales for B 60 and the individual curves for BAC versus time, Co values were calculated by regression and, together with the alcohol consumed, employed to calculate values for Widmark's distribution factor r for the ratio of body alcohol concentration: BAC for 38 subjects." (39 subjects ATR.)

Page 8: Table 4 "the data for 38 subjects", (39 subjects ATR). Table 4: all of the values are changed except for the N=14 females and the mean for the total 0.71. "The results for 37 subjects" (39 subjects ATR.) The values for mean are higher than ATR, S. D. are lower, C. V. values are all lower, and range values are all higher except for one value.

Page 9: Table 5 Means two values are higher and one the same; S. V. values all higher, C. V. values one higher and two are lower; Range values are mixed (052-0.95 males IMJFM with 0.60 - 0.87 males ATR; 0.52 - 0.77 IMJFM females and 0.54 - 0.85 females ATR; 0.52 - 0.95 range IMJFM and 0.54 - 0.87 ATR. All of the values for Table 6 have been changed. "Peak BAC's between 72 to 156 mg/dl. Table 6: Females 13 IMJFM and Females 14 ATR. All Means are higher than ATR, all S.D. are higher than ATR, C. V. values are higher than ATR, and the Range is as follows: Males 77 -155 IMJFM and 87 - 148 ATR; Females 98 - 156 IMJFM and Females 101 - 146 ATR; Total 77-156 IMJFM and Total 87 - 148 ATR.

Pate 10: " the mean peak BAC of 113.0 mg/dl". (131.2 mg/dl ATR.) The effect/Dose for "This Study 114" but (compares to 124 ATR). Study by Sidell and Pless 1971 is missing from the ATR document.

Page 11: "rate of BAC decrease between 10.4 and 23.8 mgl-1hr-1" , however on "Table 4 the range of rates are 10.8 to 26.2" and (rate of BAC decrease between 8.9 and 23.3 mgdl-1hr-1 in ATR on Table 4 the range was 10.6 or 22.1.) "For our data on 37 subjects" (38 subjects ATR.) The values "y= 0.041x + 12.2 and r2 = 0.147". (y + 0.32x + 12.2 and r2 + 0.093 ATR.) "For N =37, this r=0.383 value barely exceeds the critical value r 0.025=0.382" and (N = 38, the r = 0.305 value exceeds the critical value of r 0.05 = 0.05 = 0.271 ATR.) "PT=20.54 for 36 degrees of freedom at a confidence level of 99.5%" and (PT = 22.15. For 37 degrees of freedom or at a confidence level of of 99.5% ATR.) "tcalc = 20.54/>t table =2.70" and (22.15 />t table = 2.72 ATR.)

Page 13: "Table 9 B 60 is 17.1 and Widmark's R 0.74 for men and 0.65 for women". (B 60 102 for men and 104 for females and for Widmark's R 0.73 for men and 0.66 for females Table 8 in ATR.) Study Abele is omitted from the ATR document and Frasier added to the ATR document. " (T)he typical 70-kg subject" and ("typical 75-kg subject" ATR.)

Page 14: All the variables in Figure 3 have been changed on the ATR document.

Page 15: "nearly 16 hours to reach alcohol-free status". ("nearly 17 hours to reach alcohol-free status".)

Page 16: Sidel reference omitted.

This material was also presented by Dubowski in ANNALS OF CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND LABORATORY SCIENCE, (abstract). The numbers of the study are the same, however there are differences in the Peak BAC, range from the study published in ALCOHOL TECHNICAL REPORTS, but they are the same as the INTERNATIONAL MICROFORM JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE. Dubowski had trouble with the number of subjects and these appear to be blood not breath concentrations, however this is unclear from the abstract.

Why were so many numbers changed? Even with the changes, there are many gross errors. Much of this should be accounted for. Many of the errors are simple mathematical ones which would/should have been found had the documents been peer reviewed.

This report makes the ATR report even more interesting for Jensen to have brought to court since they both use Widmarks r and B60. Widmark himself stated he wasn't sure that his formula could be use on breath alcohol concentrations.

Shajani and Dinn (1985) state: "Courts are often interested in calculation of blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) for a given amount consumed and vice-versa, as well as retrograde extrapolation of BAC's using a range of rates of elimination of alcohol from the blood. Dubowski has raised some concerns with regards to the validity of retrograde extrapolation as have Shajani et al. with regards to accuracy of conversion of a BAC into an amount consumed.

"It was with a social setting in mind that this study was conducted to observe the following after consumption of alcohol under social drinking conditions: 1) Time to reach maximum BAC after consumption of the last drink 2) Post-absorptive rate of elimination of alcohol 3) Validity of retrograde extrapolation using a range of elimination rates 4) Agreement between calculated maximum BAC's and experimentally obtained maximum BAC's.

"Co values were determined according to Dubowski via linear regression (Fig. 7) and were used to compute the maximum BAC (mg%/g% ethanol/kg body weight Table 5). "Using the formula A = Co x pr , where A is the weight of alcohol consumed in g, p is the weight of the subject in kg, and Co is the theoretical maximum BAC, the Widmark factor (ratio of the water content of the entire body to that of the circulating blood), r was calculated (Table 6).

"The mean time to reach maximum BAC after the last drink, was found to be 35 min. with a range of 17-69 min. This result is not inconsistent with the present opinion presented to the courts by the authors that on an empty or near empty stomach the maximum BAC will normally be reached within 20-40 min. with an average of 30 min. after the last drink, but may be longer depending on the contents of the stomach.

"The mean rate of elimination was found to be 19.3 mg%/hr. with a range of 13.3-25.9 mg%/hr. At present the range given to the courts by us is 10-20 mg%/hr, However, the presently used range is not prejudicial in impaired driving offenses as the lower the elimination rate used during retrograde extrapolation, the lower the estimated BAC at a prior time.

Dubowski makes the following statement with regards to this practice, "We conclude that zero-order kinetics apparently do not apply to post absorptive BAC decline with time, and that speculative retrograde extrapolations of BAC are unwarranted in forensic science." To assess the reliability of retrograde extrapolation, breath test results for each subject determined at a later time during the experiment, were extrapolated over varying time spans utilizing elimination rates of 10 and 20 mg/hr. The calculated results were then compared with the actual results obtained (Table 9). In all but one instance the actual result fell within the extrapolated range, or was higher than the extrapolated range. The exception was the subject drinking Kahula with milk who took 68 minutes to reach maximum BAC.

"To assess the reliability of calculations involving retrograde extrapolation, where assumptions [(i) no consumption of alcohol 30 min. prior to the time in question and (ii) no consumption of alcohol from the time in question to the time of the breath or blood test] is not valid, theoretical BAC's for each subject were determined using the quantity of the last drink and the subject's weight. The calculation involved subtracting the theoretical maximum effect of the last drink from the extrapolated value. The calculated results were compared with the experimental results obtained in the absorptive phase (Table 10). The calculated range of BAC's underestimated the actual BAC in every instance except one where the actual BAC fell within the calculated range.

"The results of this experiment support our opinion presented to the courts with respect to time to reach maximum BAC after the last drink as well as the forensically defensible practice of retrograde extrapolation. The 27-60% overestimation of calculated BAC's from an amount consumed was expected as the calculation assumed maximum absorption of a quantity consumed; thus this calculation is always qualified in court by stressing the result is the theoretical maximum. The mean rate of elimination was higher than expected; however the range was consistent with that found by previous authors," (Shajani and Dinn, 1985).

Note: TBW concept which takes into account, weight, age, and sex, several of the very things Dubowski says make it unacceptable to use back calculation on a BAC. Dubowski hasn't tested the fasting state ( an overnight fast) in his "blood/breath experiments".

"The alcohol breath test is evaluated for variability in response to changes in physiological parameters. The ABT was originally developed in the 1950's, at a time when understanding of pulmonary physiology was limited. Physiological studies now show that alcohol is exchanged entirely within the conducting airways via diffusion from the bronchial circulation. Recognition that alcohol exchanges in the airways, rather than the alveoli, open up the ABT for a new wave of research to improve the accuracy of BrAC measurements," (Hlastala, 1998).

Dubowski, K.; "Human pharmacokinetics of ethanol. I. Peak blood concentrations and elimination in male and female subjects," ALCOHOL TECHNICAL REPORTS (1976a), 5: 55-63. (Reworked from article in INTERNATIONAL MICROFORM JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE.) Journal is no longer published, ceased in 1984. THIS ARTICLE WAS NEVER PEER REVIEWED. There are no dates for submission and acceptance. THERE ARE MAJOR PROBLEMS WITH THE DATA IN THIS STUDY. Had it been peer reviewed, several of the errors would/should have been corrected.

1) Most research begins with a review of the literature, or a statement of why the study is important.

2) The paper begins with "41 subjects", "27 male and 14 female" on page 55; on page 57 paragraph 1 there are "15 females" and Table 1 "N = 29"; page 58 Table 3 "Total # = 40", paragraph 1 states "41 subjects", paragraphs 2 states "40 subjects", paragraph 4 states "39 subjects"; page 59 Table 4 "Males (N = 25). Females (N = 15) total N = 40", Table 5 "Total # = 39", paragraph 1 states "39 subjects"; and page 60 Table 6 gives the "Male (N = 25)" and the "Female (N =1 4)" with a "Total (N = 39)", Table 7 at head of the column "This study N = 41" and paragraph 3 states "38 subjects"; and finally page 61 "N = 38". None of this is explained. Why are there so many differences in the numbers of persons tested? There should be some consistency in the data.

3) "Range for Elapsed Time is 15-138" but '14' is clearly at the top of the column so the range should be 14-138 (elimination rate of fed subjects) Table 3 on page 58.

4) Paragraph 4, page 58 states "From the Individual data for BAC versus time obtained by direct analysis of serial blood specimens, Co values were calculated by linear regression"... It states the regression is done with least squares, but that is under figure 2 and he doesn't tell us how the least squares were produced.

5) No indication was given of: length of fast before the test or if they were fasted at all, what constitutes a "light sandwich meal", if food was given to the subjects at another time, length of time to drink the alcohol, how many drinks was it divided into, what was the time of day of the testing, the target BAC or BrAC to be reached, where the study was conducted, i.e., a hospital, a laboratory, or a bar.

6) What was the interval between the tests--what does "frequent intervals" mean?

7) Were is the "nearly simultaneous" blood test information, breath information is only presented?

8) Page 58 in paragraph 3 author converts BAC to BrAC by using the "uniform density of 1.055 g/ml". Page 59 paragraph 1 the author tries to convert BAC to breath alcohol. This was based on a (conversion of BAL from mg/liter to mg/kilogram based on an assumed uniform blood density of 1.055 g/ml), used to convert BAC to BrAC or vice versa. Dubowski later writes that one can't convert BrAC to BAC. This is on page 102 or his article "Absorption, distribution and elimination of alcohol", JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL, Supplement 1985, July, p. 98-108.

9) Page 60 "regression of y (=Peak BAC) upon x (=Elapsed Time) was r2 = 0.042." Looks like concentration x time x r. Paragraph 2 (from Table 4) "BAC decrease between 8.9 and 23.3 mg/dl1 hr1". But on Table 4 "10.6-22.1" is listed for the range. Where does he get r2 = 0.042, on page 61, r2 = .093.

10) When these considerations (uncertainty of presumed post absorptive state, assumed linearity and regularity of BAC decrease with time) are coupled with the "steeple effect" in the BAC time curve and with the wide range of B60 (elimination rates) expectable, as demonstrated above, it becomes clear that speculative retrograde extrapolation in the BAC to any point prior to an experimentally determined value must be avoided in forensic practice. . .", page 61.

11) Dubowski states on page 61 "Our results for this value (Table 5) are somewhat higher than Widmark's own data in the smaller subject series, but coincide well with the values reported in several other studies shown in Table 8. Dubowski's Factor r is 0.73 for men and 0.66 for women. Widmark's r was 0.68 for men and 0.55 for women. Dubowski's were not fasted, did they eat later, too?

12) Page 62 paragraph 2, Dubowski states "they (the data) demonstrate the hazards attending predictions of expectable peak BAC's after social alcohol consumption of the time required for reduction of an initial BAC to a give lower values, as well as the limitations, in forensic practice, of speculative retrograde BAC extrapolations using an assumed universal rate of BAC decline." Therefore, the expert should give a range of BAC levels, not just one level. (Widmark maintained that a range should be given,too.)

13) Widmark did his experiments were conducted on empty stomachs. Gullberg and Jones (1994) maintain you can't apply Widmarks to breath alcohol testing unless another source of variation, K (the blood breath conversion factor) is introduced.

14) Page 62 gives information about a "typical male with a BAC of 250 (.25) who takes 17 hours to reach the alcohol free status. If you divide .25 by 17 you get an alcohol elimination rate of .0147 (nearly the same as Table 59.)

Dubowski, K.; "Human Pharmacokinetics of ethanol : further studies," CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1976b), 22: 1199. (Abstract, not peer reviewed.) "In "Human pharmacokinetics of ethanol: further studies", Dubowski states there are "78 normal male volunteers" however, on the chart under N there are "All 142". On the next column "N is 133" at the bottom. "We conclude that zero-order kinetics apparently do not apply to post absorptive BAC decline with time, and that speculative retrograde extrapolation of BAC is unwarranted." [Why are the numbers different? We don't know if these are blood or breath alcohol concentrations or did he take the two and average them? Why are the number of subjects different in each N column? Why not break out the data by administered amount since three levels were use?

Dubowski, K.; "Letters to the Editor : National Safety Council's Committee on Alcohol and Drugs," THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF FORENSIC MEDICINE AND PATHOLOGY (1986) 7 (3): 266.

Dubowski, K.; "Letters to the Editor : Duplicate breath-alcohol testing," THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF FORENSIC MEDICINE AND PATHOLOGY(1988), 9 (3): 272.

Dubowski, K.; " Manual for analysis of ethanol in biological liquids". Report No. DOT-TSC-NHTSA-76-4 (HS 802 208). Washington, D. C., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U. S. Department of Transportation, January, 1977.

Dubowski, K.; " Measurement of alcohol in breath," In: Laboratory Diagnosis Of Disease Caused By Toxic Agents, by F. W. Sunderman and F. W. Sunderman, Jr., Warren H. Green, St. Louis, 1970, p316-342.

Dubowski, K.; " Measurement of carboxyhemoglobin and carbon monoxide in blood. . ." ANNALS OF CLINICAL AND LABORATORY SCIENCE (1973), 3, (1) :53-65.

Dubowski, K.; "Method for alcohol determination in biological liquids by sensing with a solid-state detector," CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1976) 22 (6), p863-67.

Dubowski, K.; "Necessary scientific safeguards in breath alcohol analysis," JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES (1960) 5: 422-33.

Dubowski, K. M.; "An o-toluidine method for body fluid determination," CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1962), 8, May-June: 215-35.

Dubowski, K.; Essary, Natalie A., " Performance of commercial breath-alcohol simulators--further studies," CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1988),34: 1263. (abstract)

Dubowski, K.; "Quality assurance in breath-alcohol analysis," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1994) 18 (October) p306-311.

Dubowski, K.; "Recent developments in alcohol analysis," ALCOHOL, DRUGS, AND DRIVING (1986), 13: 46.

Dubowski, K.; "Recent developments in breath-alcohol analysis," ALCOHOL, DRUGS, AND TRAFFIC SAFETY, In: S. Isrealstam and S. Lambert (eds.). Addition Research Foundation of Ontario, Toronto, 1975, p483-94.

Dubowski, K.; Essary, Natalie A.; "Response of breath-alcohol analyzers to acetone," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1983), 7: 231-34.

Dubowski, K.; Essary, Natalie A.; "Response of breath-alcohol analyzers to acetone : further studies," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1984) 8 (September/October): 205-8.

Dubowski, K. M.; "The role of the scientist in litigation involving drug-use testing," CRIMINAL CHEMISTRY (1988) 34 (4): 788-92.

Dubowski, K. M.; "Sidney Kaye, Ph.D. internationally renowned forensic toxicologist," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF FORENSIC MEDICAL PATHOLOGY (1985) 6 (2): 167-9.

Dubowski, K. M.; "Some practical implications of perspiration electrolyte analysis ("sweat test"); CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1961), 7, October: 494-503.

Dubowski, K; "Specificity of breath-alcohol analysis," JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (1964), 189: 1039.

Dubowski, K.; Gadsden, R. H. , Sr.; Polkis, A.; "The stability of ethanol in human whole blood concentrations : an inter-laboratory evaluation," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1997), 21 (6): 486-91.

Dubowski, K.; "Studies in breath-alcohol analysis : biological factors," ZIETSCHRIEFT FUR REICHTSMEDIZIN (JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE) (1975) 76: 93-117.

Dubowski, K.; Essary, N. A.; "Studies on breath parameters in human subjects applicable to breath-alcohol analysis," in ALCOHOL, DRUGS AND TRAFFIC SAFETY. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1983, Washington, D. C., U. S. Government Printing Office, 1985, p393-398.

Dubowski, K.; " Studies on pharmacokinetics of ethanol in man," ANNALS OF CLINICAL AND LABORATORY SCIENCE (1975), 5 (4):309. (abstract)

Dubowski, K.; "Technology of breath-alcohol analysis". DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 92-1728. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Washington, D. C., 1992, 42p.

Dubowski, Kurt M., "Time-of-Test DUI Laws vs. BAC Extrapolation", Center for Studies of Law in Action Borkenstein Course, Indiana University, c2006. Use in case law State Montgomery v. Miller, Court of Appeals of Arizona, Division 1. http://caselaw.findlaw.com/az-court-of-appeals/1662235.html course is no longer at this website.

Dubowski, K. M.; "Vapor-alcohol control tests with compressed ethanol-gas mixtures : scientific bias and actual performance," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1996), 20 (6): 484-91.

Friedman, T. E.; Dubowski, K. M.; "Chemical testing procedures for the determination of ethyl alcohol," JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, (1959), 170 (May 2): 47-65+.

Hodgson, B. T.; Dubowski, K. M.; "Convention for breath alcohol units," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1995),19 (2):131. (abstract)

Lucas, D. M.; Dubowski, K. M.; Mitchell, M. C.; Soderstrom, C. A.; "Pharmacology of alcohol. Impairment of driver performance: Panel discussion," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1985), 105: 117-9.

Mason, M. F.; Dubowski, K.; "Alcohol traffic and chemical testing in the United States," CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1974) 20 (2):126-140. "Because the causes of these discrepancies cannot adequately be controlled in law-enforcement practice, we suggest that calculation of a blood-alcohol concentration based on the result of a breath analysis be abandoned." (Page 125)

Mason, M. F.; Dubowski, K., "Breath-alcohol analysis : uses, methods and some forensic problems--Review and opinion," JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCE (1976), 21:9-41. There are problems with "Breath-alcohol analysis" (Dubowski, 1976: page 28). "Because of the usual interval between apprehension and the taking of a breath sample, very large arterio-venus differences are no doubt infrequent, but the circumstances of some arrests and their time frames strongly suggest that failure of the subjects to be post-absorptive could lead to his breath's yielding a significantly higher calculated blood concentration than present in venous blood." "The technically more difficult problem of continuous monitoring of ethanol in expired alveolar air, further to confirm "steepling', appears not to have been undertaken to date, (Page 29).

"The status of absorption and distribution does not affect the presumed blood concentration obtained by calculation if the value calculated is specified as that obtaining (sic) in pulmonary venous blood. Any value reported is that presumed present in the sample when obtained, and no estimate of the value at any earlier time should be attempted. Such retrograde extrapolation is not needed if the offense is defined by stature in terms of a quantity found at the time the specimen was taken with appropriate limitations on the time lag allowed."

unusual for enough reliable information to be available in a given case to permit a meaningful and fair value to be obtained by retrograde extrapolation. If attempted, it must be based on assumptions of uncertain validity, or the answer must be given in terms of a range of possible values so wide that it is rarely of any use. If retrograde extrapolation of a blood concentration is based on breath analysis the difficulty is compounded," (1976, page 32). "Breath analysis for ethanol, especially in respect to forensic aspects, has been reviewed. Included are matters dealing with instrumentation, physiological factors involved in the elimination of ethanol via the breath, and especially, the uncertainties in the calculation of a whole blood concentration of ethanol from the quantity found in breath.

"Summary. We believe that the conversion of a breath quantity to a blood concentration of ethanol, for forensic purposes should be abandoned and that the offense of driving while under the influence of alcohol should be statutorily defined in terms of the concentration of ethanol found in the breath in jurisdictions employing breath analysis. The breath sample would require some extension of present federal standards for evidential breath-testing devices," (Mason and Dubowski, 1976, page 33).

Mason, M. F.; Dubowski, K.; "Breath as a specimen for analysis for ethanol and other low molecular weight alcohols": In Garriott, J. C., ed., Medico legal aspects of alcohol determination in biological specimens, Littleton, MA: PSG Publishing Co., 1988, p101-110.

Mason, M. F.; Dubowski, K.; "H. Ward Smith, 1914-1967," JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCE (1967), 12 (October): 7-8.

McBay, A. J.; Dubowski, K. M. Finkle, B. S.; "Urine testing for marijuana use {letter},"JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (1983) 249 (7):881.

Neal, C.; Smith, C.; Dubowski, K. M.; Naughton, J.; "3-methoxy-4-hydorxymandelic acid excretion during physical exercise," JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY (1968), 24 (5): 619-21.

O'Neill, B., Williams, A. F. and Dubowski, K.; "Variability in blood alcohol concentrations: implication for estimating individual results," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1983), 44:222-230. "Using the BACs from these samples, it was possible to fit a regression equation to BACs estimated from breath and those determined by direct blood analysis. This equation was then used to adjust all of the breath results so that they were no longer underestimates of the actual BACs. Consequently, all the BAC results presented are estimates of the actual BACs that would normally be obtained by breath analyses employing a 2100:1 conversion factor." . In essence, Dubowski used the breath testing equipment to figure out when the BAC peaked, took blood alcohol samples, then tried to align the breath test results with the more reliable blood alcohol results.

Schaefer, C.F., Brackett, D. J., Gunn, C. G., Dubowski, K. M.; "Decreased platelet aggregation following marijuana smoking in man," JOURNAL OF THE OKLAHOMA STATE MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (1979), 72 (12): 435-6.

Schaefer, C. F, Gunn, C. G., Dubowski, K. M.; "Dose-related heart-rate, perceptual, and decisional changes in man following marijuana smoking," PERCEPTION AND MOTOR SKILLS (1977), 44 (1): 3-16.

Schaefer, C.F., Brackett, D. J.; Gunn, C. G.; Dubowski, K. M.; "Marijuana dosage control through heart rate," NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE (1975), 293 ( 2):101. (letter)

Schaefer, C.F.; Gunn, C. G.; Dubowski, K. M.; "Normal plasma testosterone concentrations after marijuana smoking," NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE (1975) 292 (16):867-8. (letter)

Shupe, Lloyd M. and Dubowski, Kurt M.; "Ethyl alcohol in blood and urine," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY; 22: 901-10.

updated 12/20/16