See also: Calvin Rayburn Civil Trial
See also:
Calvin Rayburn Criminal Trial


Page 3


2 being produced, sworn as hereinafter certified and

3 examined on behalf of the Defendant, testified as

4 follows:


6 Q. Will you state your name, please?

7 A. Calvin M. Rayburn.

8 Q. And where are you employed, sir?

9 A. I'm a criminalist with the Iowa

10 Department of Public Safety crime laboratory in

11 Des Moines, Iowa.

12 Q. And Mr. Rayburn, how long have you been

13 with the BCI or the former DCI?

14 A. It used to be the BCI; now it's the

15 DCI -- "division" instead of "bureau." I've been

16 with the crime laboratory division for 23-1/2

17 years.

18 Q. Is there any particular responsibility

19 that you have with that lab?

20 A. Yes, there are.

21 Q. And would you describe that for me,

22 please?

23 A. Basically my job is alcohol testing.

24 This involves mostly the direct breath testing with

25 the Intoxilyzers throughout the State of Iowa. I'm


Page 4

1 involved with that, with the certification and

2 maintenance of the instruments, training of the

3 officers, certification, testimony in regard to the

4 Intoxilyzers.

5 I'm also doing the blood samples that

6 are submitted to the crime laboratory for alcohol

7 analysis, and occasionally I'm sent on crime scene

8 duty. I've done a few other things in the

9 laboratory, like drugs and paints, but mostly I've

10 been involved with alcohol testing.

11 Q. And I guess you and I have probably

12 known each other for over 20 years in varying

13 degrees.

14 A. About that, yes.

15 Q. And it's my recollection that you were

16 always in the laboratory, is that correct?

17 A. Yes.

18 Q. Tell me how long you have been involved

19 primarily in the blood analysis type of work --

20 blood-alcohol.

21 A. I was hired to do the blood samples and

22 urine samples that were being submitted to the

23 crime laboratory back in November of 1973, so

24 basically I've spent my entire career in the

25 laboratory, working with alcohol testing; mostly

Page 5

1 with bloods, but also with urines and breath

2 samples.

3 Q. Do you do some blood testing that has

4 substances other than alcohol?

5 A. Not at the present, no. If you mean

6 toxicology, like other drugs, no, I don't get

7 involved in that. I don't have time.

8 Q. Do you do any typing anymore for any

9 types of crime scene analysis?

10 A. No, I've never done that.

11 Q. Okay. In the last 10 years, what

12 percentage of your time would you say is

13 attributable exclusively to blood-alcohol analysis?

14 A. Just bloods, probably 10 percent.

15 Alcohol is 100 percent, but bloods alone would be

16 about 10 percent, 15 percent, something like that.

17 Q. And what percent of the rest of it would

18 be Breathalyzer -- breath machine alcohol testing?

19 A. Most all of the rest of it would be

20 involved with breath-alcohol testing.

21 Q. And do you ever get involved very much

22 with urine testing for alcohol?

23 A. On occasion, but not extensively. I

24 have done a number of urine samples in the past; at

25 the present time, not too often.


Page 6

1 Q. Am I correct that there's still

2 basically three tests to determine alcohol? The

3 most common is the Breathalyzer, and then blood and

4 then urine?

5 A. Yes, that is correct.

6 Q. There are no other ways to test for

7 blood-alcohol?

8 A. Not under normal circumstances. Now, we

9 do do a number of other kinds of cases, but these

10 would be such things as medical examiner cases,

11 things such as vitreous, the fluid from the eyes,

12 being sent in. Occasionally we do things such as

13 bile, stomach contents.

14 Q. Are those for date-of-death or

15 time-of-death-type analyses, or --

16 A. Somewhat, but also sometimes the blood

17 sample's either contaminated or not available,

18 depending upon the circumstances. Some of the

19 doctors, the medical examines are sending in

20 vitreous, normally, especially somebody like Tom

21 Bennett, the state medical examiner. I don't know

22 what all he's doing with it. We're doing it for

23 alcohol, things such as SIDS death. We are also

24 checking for things such as aspirin, salicylic

25 acid, other things for the medical examiners, but


Page 7

1 that's normally just for the medical examiners.

2 Q. Can you tell me, say in 1996, how many

3 body fluid or Breathilyzer tests did you do for

4 alcohol?

5 A. The Breathilyzer tests, I normally don't

6 run. I train the officers, so I'm not really

7 running those kind of tests myself. Blood tests,

8 I'd have to go back and check, but it would be

9 somewhere around 13 to 14 hundred, probably.

10 Q. In the calendar year?

11 A. In 1996.

12 Q. And how many urine tests, a ballpark

13 count?

14 A. Last year, I don't believe I did any

15 urines.

16 Q. This 1300, would that be a ballpark

17 number for, say, the last 10 years, or has it gone

18 up or down?

19 A. It went down for a while as we were

20 putting more Intoxilyzers out in the field. The

21 last few years, it's been going up again, due to

22 we're getting more samples in from accidents and

23 fatalities. So it went down for a few years; now

24 it's going back up again.

25 Q. Can you tell me what you've done in


Page 8

1 preparation for me taking your deposition today?

2 A. I made copies of the lab report and the

3 receipt form and talked to Kasey once or twice on

4 this over the past month or so. Nothing extensive.

5 Q. Did you review your notes or the lab

6 notes regarding this case?

7 A. Yes, I did.

8 Q. And did you bring those with you?

9 A. The notes I reviewed is the laboratory

10 report, a copy of which I have with me; also a copy

11 of the receipt form that was submitted with the

12 sample, that was brought in by Bob Kramer. I also

13 looked at the chromatogram that I had analyzed --

14 when I analyzed the sample.

15 Q. We could maybe turn to your report, and

16 I have a copy of your report. It has the date of

17 October 30, 1996, up in the right-hand corner.

18 A. Case No. L96-10980, yes, sir.

19 Q. So I think we both have the same

20 document.

21 A. Yes, sir.

22 (Brief pause.)

23 A. Yes, sir they are the same.

24 Q. The bottom portion of that report

25 indicates that the item that was received was


Page 9

1 received through Cedar Falls Police Officer Robert

2 Kramer, who must have delivered it in person on

3 October 17 at approximately 9:15 a.m. to the lab,

4 would that be fair to say?

5 A. Yes, sir.

6 Q. And did you personally receipt for that,

7 or I believe I see somebody else in the minutes

8 actually took the item from Mr. Kramer.

9 A. Yes, that is correct. I normally do not

10 receive the evidence. The evidence technicians

11 receive the evidence. In this particular case, it

12 was Bev Schmeling that received the evidence from

13 Bob Kramer.

14 Q. Is this the only lab report that has

15 been done regarding your analysis of this blood

16 specimen?

17 A. As far as I know, yes, sir, it is. It's

18 the only report in the file that we have.

19 Q. And can were go through this a little bit

20 so I make sure I can understand it. It's my

21 understating, in the first part, which is kind of

22 the narrative report, it indicates that the blood

23 sample, Item A., came labeled with the name of Tracy

24 Rokes, and it was found to contain 0.087 grams of

25 alcohol in 100 ml, or milliliters, of blood, is


Page 10

1 that right so far?

2 A. Yes, sir, it is.

3 Q. And is that a sentence that is

4 standardly used, except -- I mean, you obviously

5 put in the person's name and the item number, and

6 then you put in the right amount of whatever the

7 test shows, but is that generally the standard

8 introductory sentence?

9 A. Yes, sir, it is. This whole paragraph

10 and the one below it, too, is the normal thing for

11 samples like this.

12 Q. So would it be fair to say the only

13 thing that's unique about this paragraph that we're

14 talking about, this narrative paragraph, is it has

15 the name of the person and the identifying Item A

16 and the result of the test?

17 A. Yes, sir.

18 Q. Go ahead. I didn't mean to interrupt

19 you.

20 A. Most of them would be Item A.

21 Occasionally we'll get some with an Item B or Item

22 C, but most of our alcohol reports are a single

23 item, so that would most often be Item A.

24 Q. And Item A is your designation.

25 whatever the hospital or police designated it, you


Page 11

1 give it your own lettering system, don't you, as

2 opposed to a numbering system?

3 A. Yes, sir. The number is the laboratory

4 case number, which is up in the top right-hand

5 corner. Then we start out with Item A, Item B,

6 Item C, depending on how many items are bring

7 submitted under that particular case. It there's

8 one, it would be Item A.

9 Q. It's been a while, but -- and then you

10 go to double As and so forth?

11 A. Yes.

12 Q. Now, when it says "Blood anticoagulant

13 substances do not interfere with the alcohol test

14 method employed in preparing this report," what

15 does that mean in lay language?

16 A. Basically in the tubes that most

17 hospitals use, there is a substance in there to

18 preserve the sample and to keep it from coagulating

19 or clotting. Those substances do not interfere

20 with the type of test that I do at the laboratory.

21 Q. Now, it's my recollection, from being in

22 the lab years ago, that the receiving technician,

23 who in his case is Miss Schmeling?

24 A. Mrs. Schmeling.

25 Q. Would she have received it from


Page 12

1 Mr. Kramer and then taken it and locked it up in

2 like a safety deposit box until you examined it?

3 A. No, sir. The lab is kept locked up.

4 The entire lab is locked up. It's placed -- after

5 the evidence technician receives it, does the

6 paperwork, fills out the receipt form, puts the

7 case number on it and so forth, they then place it

8 in a walk-in cooler. All our biological samples

9 are stored in a biological-safe area, which is a

10 larger cooler. So she would place that in the

11 cooler with the rest of the samples that had been

12 received during that time period for analysis.

13 Q. And would it have stayed in there until

14 you would have taken it out for purposes of your

15 analysis?

16 A. Yes, it would.

17 Q. Does this report indicate when it was

18 that you would have taken it out?

19 A. The date of the report was October 30th,

20 and I probably analyzed it the day before, on

21 October 29th.

22 Q. Do you keep your notes regarding this

23 test procedure back at the BCI?

24 A. Not the procedure itself. Basically

25 what I use for notes is a paragraph very similar to


Page 13

1 this, that has blanks for the item, the case

2 number, the case name and the amount of alcohol.

3 Then I just go in and fill in the blanks, keep that

4 note and the chromatogram that is gotten off of the

5 instrument.

6 Q. So the chromatogram printout is

7 available someplace?

8 A. Yes, it is.

9 Q. And that would show this 0.087, is that

10 correct?

11 A. That would be one of the results on that

12 chromatogram.

13 Q. With regard to this third sentence, it

14 says "The margin of error for this alcohol

15 concentration is plus or minus 0.004 or .5 or

16 better, whichever is greater."

17 A. Yes, sir.

18 Q. Now, let me ask you, what does that

19 mean?

20 A. Basically what that means is the result

21 that I give out is accurate within plus or minus

22 004 or within five percent of the actual value,

23 whichever is greater. In this case, on a .087,

24 it's within five percent of the actual value of

25 that alcohol in that sample.


Page 14

1 Q. So then, would I be doing this right if

2 I would say you would multiply .87 by five percent?

3 A. Easier way to do it would be multiply if

4 by .95 and 1.05 to get the plus or minus margin.

5 Q. And I understand that would be easier,

6 but the result would be the same, wouldn't it, if

7 you multiply it by .5?

8 A. No.

9 Q. Okay.

10 A. Five percent would be .05.

11 Q. So it would 87 times 95?

12 A. .95.

13 Q. And do you have a calculator with you?

14 A. That would be about plus or minus 4, To

15 make it easier, round off, puss or minus 4 would be

16 five percent. You're very close to it.

17 Q. So when I had it calculated, I had it

18 calculated at whatever that actually comes on the

19 high side. It might be another .4, so it could be

20 somewhere in the vicinity of .091?

21 A. Yes, sir.

22 Q. And on the lower side, it could be in

23 the vicinity of .083?

24 A. Yes, sir.

25 Q. And is there anything that leads you to


Page 15

1 believe that that results is inaccurate?

2 A. No, sir, there is nothing in this report

3 or when I ran the sample that would indicate that

4 this report is wrong.

5 Q. Is one of the things that you're

6 concerned with when you start your examination, are

7 you the person that looks at the bottle and -- did

8 you see the receiving receptacle bottle, too?

9 A. Yes, I did.

10 Q. And do you look at that for the purpose

11 to see if it's the right kind of a container and if

12 it has the right type of seal on it?

13 A. There is no such thing as a right kind

14 of container. The method I use, I can use almost

15 any kind of blood sample. I look at the box to

16 make sure that the sample is sealed, it has the

17 proper name, case number on it and so forth, and a

18 visual examination that there has been no tampering

19 with the particular sample.

20 Q. Was there ever any indication to you

21 that there was any tampering or any contamination

22 with this particular sample?

23 A. There was nothing on the sample or in

24 the box that would indicate any tampering or

25 contamination of that sample. If it would have


Page 16

1 been, it would have been noted in my report.

2 Q. When it was delivered by Mr. Kramer, did

3 you have any conversation with Mr. Kramer, that you

4 can recall?

5 A. I have had a number of conversations

6 with Bob Kramer, but not this particular time,

7 because when that was brought in, I was on

8 vacation. I was somewhere out west, so no, I

9 didn't on this particular case.

10 Q. You just know him as a lab officer from

11 a relatively medium-sized city, who you've had

12 previous work with?

13 A. I've worked with Bob and have known Bob

14 for a number of years, yes.

15 Q. So when this report indicates that the

16 test -- or your report is dated October 30, and you

17 probably tested it, to the best of your

18 recollection, October 29. Would there have been

19 anything in the delay that would have caused any

20 type of change in that blood-alcohol reading?

21 A. Not much. There might be a slight loss

22 of blood -- of alcohol in that little bit of time,

23 but not a great deal. Depending on the

24 circumstances, the alcohol concentration will

25 slowly drop after it's drawn for a while, for maybe


Page 17

1 a week to two weeks, and then it will level off.

2 So depending on the circumstances, it could have

3 been a little bit lower, but not a great deal.

4 Q. And when you say that, to what extent do

5 you think?

6 A. Normally, in my experience, I'm talking

7 samples that I have analyzed three to six months

8 after they've been drawn. If the sample is

9 analyzed within the first two or three days, and I

10 analyze the sample three to six months later, it

11 will normally read about a .02 lower, depending on

12 the circumstances. I've seen it as low as a .01

13 and as high as a .03, but most of them run about

14 a .02.

15 Q. It's my understanding of the literature

16 that up to 30 days there is generally not any

17 significant change in alcohol. Do you agree with

18 that?

19 A. Well, significant -- depending on how

20 you define "significant." I have seen a slight

21 loss in 30 days, and then it will level out after

22 that. That's what my experience has been in the

23 crime laboratory, is that it drops for about 30

24 days and then levels off.

25 Q. Do you have any particular literature


Page 18

1 that you're basing that on, or is it based on what

2 you observed?

3 A. Based on what I have observed. Now, I

4 did read one report a number of years ago -- and I

5 don't even remember the name of the article or

6 where it was published or anything else. I think

7 it was one of the scientific journals. Basically

8 what they had stated was that the enzyme in the

9 body that metabolizes alcohol, that breaks down the

10 alcohol in the body, is also present in the blood.

11 So as long as that blood is in a tube, that enzyme

12 is there, also, but since it's not activated, it

13 doesn't work very fast. It takes a long time for

14 it to really work on the alcohol. So that's one of

15 the reasons that I believe there's a slight loss of

16 alcohol over 30 days or more. There is also --

17 Mike Rehberg likes to think that in that length of

18 time, in the head space, the alcohol evaporates

19 from the blood, and when you open the tube, you

20 lose some alcohol that way, too. I don't know. It

21 may be a combination of both.

22 Q. So is it possible that in some

23 circumstances, there is no change whatsoever if it

24 is less than 30 days?

25 A. I would expect not significant changes


Page 19

1 in 30 days.

2 Q. And so I make sure I have this

3 understanding, what would you think, applying the

4 maximum number? And then I'm going to ask you the

5 minimum number. Would it change? Like before, we

6 talked the high number would have been .091. Would

7 it be .092 or --

8 A. How long are we talking? First of all,

9 since I don't know what the time period is, I

10 really can't answer the question. I don't know

11 that the time period is at all.

12 Q. In this situation, we're talking less

13 than 30 days. We're taking approximately -- I

14 believe the blood was withdrawn on October 4th.

15 A. In that length of time, I would not

16 expect a significant change. I would expect the

17 alcohol to have been slightly higher than I got if

18 I had analyzed it immediately, by .01 at the most.

19 Q. Just so I understand that, instead of it

20 being .087, you think it might be .088?

21 A. No, sir; .097 -- up to that. It could

22 be. Again, that would depend on how soon after the

23 sample is drawn the first analysis was done and the

24 second analysis, so it would depend a little bit

25 the time period and all that, how long the sample


Page 20

1 was stored. But I wouldn't expect a great deal of

2 loss; maybe a .01 to the most.

3 Q. Have you told anybody that prior to

4 telling me that today?

5 A. It's been brought up in court a number

6 of times over the last 20-some years.

7 Q. Have you told Mr. Wadding that?

8 A. I don't remember if I did or not.

9 THE WITNESS: Have I? I don't believe

10 so.

11 MR. WADDING: I don't think so.

12 A. I don't believe I did.

13 Q. And would you agree that it could also

14 be exactly at the .087?

15 A. Yes, sir.

16 Q. If it was going to be a significant

17 amount, and it's a situation where you're on

18 vacation, wouldn't there have been somebody else

19 who could have done it right away?

20 A. There could have been, yes, sir.

21 Q. And what I'm assuming, that if that is a

22 real concern, that blood wouldn't be left in

23 storage for 13 days?

24 A. It's not a major problem. We really

25 don't worry about it. The reason this was not


Page 21

1 analyzed by somebody else sooner was that they were

2 busy doing other things and didn't have time, so

3 they got piled up until I came back off of

4 vacation.

5 Q. With regard to the tube that you had, as

6 I understand it, it shows it came in on 10-17, is

7 that correct?

8 A. Yes, sir.

9 Q. And the report is that one-page report

10 that shows the test was 10-30? Your report is

11 dated October 30?

12 A. October 30, yes, sir.

13 Q. Are you aware of any other tests that

14 have been done?

15 A. Yes, sir.

16 Q. And how did you become aware of those

17 tests?

18 A. Through Mr. Wadding.

19 Q. And when did you first become aware of

20 those tests?

21 A. A month or two ago, when I was up here

22 in court.

23 Q. And up here in court on another case?

24 A. A. Yes, sir.

25 Q. And how was that brought to your


Page 22

1 attention?

2 A. I believe we were in Kasey's office, and

3 he asked me about it and asked me about the

4 differences between that results that Sartori

5 Hospital got and what I got.

6 Q. And what was your understanding form

7 Mr. Wadding as the result that Sartori got?

8 A. I believe he stated it was about a .12

9 grams per hundred.

10 Q. And what did you tell him is what you

11 thought the difference could be?

12 A. At that time, I said I wasn't sure what

13 the difference would be, but many hospitals are not

14 doing a good job of alcohol testing. They are more

15 interested in getting an alcohol analysis done fast

16 rather than accurate, because they need that to

17 treat their patient. That would be one

18 explanation. I don't know how Sartori does their

19 testing. I don't know what kind of quality

20 controls they have, what kind of performance

21 standards they do, what kind of proficiencies they

22 perform. So without knowing anything more than

23 that, I really can't comment on Sartori's method,

24 because I don't know.

25 Q. Okay. With regards to the method that


Page 23

1 you have, is that a gas chromatography method that

2 you use.

3 A. Yes, it is.

4 Q. And I think that's spelled

5 c-h-r-o-m-a-t-o-g-r-a-p-h-y, is that correct?

6 A. That's correct.

7 Q. Would you explain to me how that system

8 works?

9 A. You want the whole procedure from the

10 time that I get the blood out and go through the

11 whole procedures on the gas chromatograph?

12 Q. Yeah.

13 A. Okay. After I get a number of samples

14 to run, I get them out of the big walk-in cooler

15 where they are stored. I take them back to a room

16 that is set aside for working toxicology cases,

17 blood and urine and other alcohol and other drugs.

18 I take the case, take the tubes out of the box.

19 check it over. I take out two samples of that

20 blood and place them in two small vials. I then

21 add another compound called an internal standard to

22 each of the vials. I then seal the vials. I do

23 this with all the cases that I happen to be working

24 that day.

25 After the blood and the internal


Page 24

1 standards are place in the vials, they're then

2 placed in a gas chromatograph. The gas

3 chromatograph then samples the vapors above the

4 blood. It takes that vapor and injects it into the

5 gas chromatograph. The gas chromatograph then

6 separates out the various components in that

7 vaporing and identifies and quantifies each of the

8 samples.

9 After the entire sample -- batch of

10 samples is run, I then write the reports. I also

11 run a known standard before the samples and a known

12 standard after the samples to make sure that the

13 gas chromatograph is working properly and is still

14 calibrated to give out the proper readings. I do

15 that every time I use the instrument to analyze

16 blood samples.

17 Q. With regard in this case, how many

18 samples did you run?

19 A. I don't know; probably somewhere between

20 eight and 16.

21 Q. And is the -- and I'm going to call it

22 87. We understand it's .087.

23 A. It's easier, yes, sir.

24 Q. And when we're talking about the 98, did

25 all of those tests, whether it's eight or 16 --


Page 25

1 would they have all come out 87, or would that have

2 been an average?

3 A. No, sir. The 87 is for this particular

4 sample. All the other samples had their own

5 results, depending on what the sample was. It

6 could have been zero, it could have been .4. So

7 they were eight to 16 different cases that I was

8 working, so they'd be different samples.

9 Q. That's where we got off. I

10 misunderstood you. Did you run more than one

11 sample of what was represented to be Mr. Rokes'

12 blood?

13 A. Yes, I did.

14 Q. And how many of those samples did you

15 run?

16 A. I ran two.

17 Q. And what were those two results?

18 A. I ran the two samples. I ran each on

19 of those twice, so the results on those four

20 examples were .087, .089, .089 and .091. Those are

21 the four results I got. Our policy is to report

22 out the lowest, so I reported out the .087.

23 Q. Now, with regard to the test, did it

24 come from two vials?

25 A. No, sir. I took both samples out of


Page 26

1 one.

2 Q. Were there two vials that came to you?

3 A. Yes, sir.

4 Q. And is there a reason why you took it

5 out of only one?

6 A. Yes, sir.

7 Q. And why is that?

8 A. Over the years, I have analyzed both

9 vials when they've been sent in. The first 12 or

10 13 years after I was working there, I analyzed both

11 samples and never found any difference between the

12 two samples. About that time, I had a complaint

13 from a defense attorney -- or several defense

14 attorneys, in fact, complaining that I did not

15 leave one of the tubes sealed for their own use if

16 they wanted to have an independent analysis. At

17 that time, I decided since I've never seen any

18 difference between the two vials, and some defense

19 attorneys were complaining, I would just take one

20 vial, analyze it, and leave the other vial sealed.

21 Q. Would it be fair to say, Cal, when you

22 talked to Mr. Wadding and it was brought to your

23 attention this discrepancy, at that point in time

24 you didn't mention anything to him about any

25 possible evaporation, am I correct in that?


Page 27

1 A. I don't believe I did. I don't believe

2 I did.

3 Q. And is the comment that you made about

4 the hospital testing, is that based primarily on

5 the fact of what you've observed over the last 23

6 years with various hospitals through the state?

7 A. Not only observing, but talking to a

8 number of doctors and nurses in the laboratories in

9 these hospitals, yes, sir.

10 Q. And do I understand your testimony, that

11 that is in part because their function is not a law

12 enforcement function; it's a medical treatment

13 function, and they are not primarily geared to do

14 this specialized testing?

15 A. Yes, sir.

16 Q. And is that in part you have people in

17 labs who you observed, who are doing different

18 types of analyses other than just blood-alcohol?

19 A. I don't understand your question,

20 Mr. Correll.

21 Q. They aren't limited. They aren't

22 experts at just one area in a lab, typically, are

23 they -- in a hospital lab?

24 A. Normally it would be a laboratory

25 technician. They would be doing a number of


Page 28

1 different kinds of tests for the hospital on blood

2 samples. It could be a number of different blood

3 cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin and many

4 others.

5 Q. And do you think that is part of what

6 you believe historically has caused you to be less

7 confident in theirs than yours?

8 A. Yes, sir.

9 Q. Are you a hundred percent confident in

10 the results that you have reported here for

11 Mr. Rokes?

12 A. I am confident, yes, sir.

13 Q. In addition to the training, is there a

14 difference, typically, in the type of machinery

15 that they utilize?

16 A. A hospital?

17 Q. Yes, sir.

18 A. Yes, sir. Normally they do not use a

19 gas chromatograph. Depending on the hospitals,

20 there's a couple other different kinds of methods

21 that they could use. Not too many hospitals that

22 I'm aware of use gas chromatography.

23 Q. The BCI -- you're not the BCI now?

24 A. D, "division."

25 Q. That shows how old I am. Your


Page 29

1 division -- is that the only law enforcement agency

2 in the State of Iowa that has a gas chromatography

3 machine available to them for this purpose, that

4 you're aware of?

5 A. As far as I know, we are. Now, some of

6 the local hospital labs may have a gas

7 chromatograph that I'm not aware of. There are a

8 few that I've heard of that do use gas

9 chromatography, but not too many.

10 Q. And is that like in Iowa City?

11 A. Well, actually the one I know about's in

12 Des Moines.

13 Q. Are the only two gas chromatograph

14 devices that you're aware of both in Des Moines?

15 A. That I know of. Now, I know there's

16 ours, and I know Methodist Hospital has one. Now,

17 there may be other hospitals or other labs around

18 the state, such as Corning Labs -- I believe

19 Corning Labs is still in operation out here.

20 Weland Labs over in Cedar Rapids/Marion, they may

21 have a GC, but they're not using it for alcohol

22 analysis. Medical Associates' lab in Dubuque -- I

23 don't believe they're using a GC, either. There's

24 a lab in Ottumwa. I don't think they are. The

25 ones I know of are not, but there may be others


Page 30

1 that I'm not aware of that might.

2 Q. The only two that you're aware of are

3 the one in your office and the one at Methodist

4 Hospital in Des Moines?

5 A. That's the only one I know of right now,

6 yes, sir.

7 Q. It's my understanding that gas

8 chromatography is referred to in your business as

9 the gold standard. Have you ever heard of that

10 phrase?

11 A. I've heard that said, because it can be

12 used for a number of different things. In my

13 opinion, there are three or four different methods

14 for alcohol analysis. If the proper procedures are

15 followed and care is taken, they're all equally as

16 good. The gas chromatograph does have a number of

17 advantages. No. 1, it will identify not only ethyl

18 alcohol, but anything else that's in the sample.

19 It is something that can be use for a variety of

20 different kinds of samples. Most hospital

21 laboratories, the methods there are using fresh,

22 whole blood. The method I use, I can get by with

23 some pretty crappy blood from autopsies and

24 fatalities and like, and still analyze for

25 alcohol. That would cause hospitals some


Page 31

1 problems.

2 This is one that can also be audited

3 fairly easily, so I can run a number of cases that

4 we receive at the laboratory every year. So there

5 are some advantages, but any other method can be

6 just as good if the proper care is taken.

7 Q. Are you familiar with an enzymatic assay

8 analysis?

9 A. I am briefly familiar with it. I'm no

10 expert on it. I have not run it for many, many

11 years.

12 Q. And I think that's spelled

13 e-n-z-y-m-a-t-i-c a-s-s-a-y?

14 A. Yes, that's correct.

15 Q. And is that a more antiquated method?

16 A. No, it's not more antiquated. Actually,

17 it's a little bit newer.

18 Q. Are you familiar with how that system

19 works?

20 A. Basically, but I wouldn't claim to be an

21 expert on every detail on it.

22 Q. Which of those machines cost more, if

23 you're aware?

24 A. That I don't know.

25 Q. How much is the machine that you have,


Page 32

1 the gas chromatograph machine, ballpark? How much

2 is a new one of those?

3 A. If we were to replace it today, it would

4 probably cost us somewhere around 30,000 to 40,000

5 dollars.

6 Q. With the enzymatic assay method, am I

7 correct that that is a system where the substance

8 is spun?

9 A. Not that I'm aware of.

10 Q. It's my understanding that that's a

11 situation where it spins out the components.

12 A. They may be spinning that out to get rid

13 of the red blood cells. The enzymatic methods works

14 better with serum or plasma rather than the red

15 blood cell. So they would start out with fresh,

16 whole blood and get rid of the red blood cells,

17 because they're measuring the absorption of

18 ultraviolet light, I believe it is, by the

19 breakdown products on the enzyme.

20 Q. Isn't it true that the literature

21 indicates that the blood-alcohol of serum tests

22 higher than the blood-alcohol test for whole blood?

23 A. Refer to just alcohol concentrations,

24 Mr. Correll. It would be easier. The alcohol

25 concentrations of blood would be slightly lower than


Page 33

1 just plain serum, yes, sir, by about 10 percent.

2 Q. If I told you that the literature that

3 I've read indicated that the blood-alcohol

4 concentration determined from serum is

5 approximately 12 to 20 percent higher than the

6 blood-alcohol concentration of whole blood from the

7 same sample, would you agree or disagree with that?

8 A. I wouldn't disagree. I don't think it's

9 quite that high, but 12 percent would be what I

10 would think would be about correct, yes.

11 Q. And apparently some other people that

12 you aren't familiar with -- have you read that some

13 people think it's as high as 20 percent?

14 A. I have not seen that myself, no.

15 Q. Are you aware that it is generally

16 considered that that type of test for alcohol

17 concentration in serum produces a higher result

18 than does the test of whole blood?

19 A. Oh, absolutely. That's been a

20 well-known fact for many years.

21 Q. And isn't that one of the things that

22 happens sometimes in the hospitals; that their

23 testing is centered or uses the serum as opposed to

24 the whole blood?

25 A. That may very well be. They should, if


Page 34

1 they follow the method correctly, compensate for

2 that, but they may not.

3 Q. As we sit here today, is it your best

4 opinion, Mr. Rayburn, that the sample attributed to

5 Mr. Rokes is .087, with a five-percent plus or

6 minus deviation therefrom?

7 A. Yes, sir, it is.

8 Q. With regard to the Sartori proceedings,

9 have you been provided any documentation regarding

10 Sartori's testing?

11 A. No, sir, I haven't.

12 Q. Are you aware of the type of testing

13 that they did?

14 A. I don't believe -- I don't remember if

15 Kasey mentioned that or not. I don't think he did

16 until -- I hadn't heard anything about it until

17 this afternoon, so no, sir, I don't have any

18 knowledge of their method or anything else.

19 Q. And so, as we sit here today, do you

20 know what their method is?

21 A. I believe it's an enzymatic assay, but

22 other than that -- there are several different

23 instruments that use similar procedures, so no, I'm

24 not actually aware of what they're doing.

25 Q. I know you haven't seen it, but is it


Page 35

1 your understanding from Mr. Wadding, as opposed to

2 me, that they're using the enzymatic assay method?

3 A. I don't recall if I heard that from

4 Kasey or from you.

5 Q. Can you tell me, if you know, why is the

6 test of the blood-alcohol in serum higher than the

7 blood-alcohol in whole blood?

8 A. Because when serum is made, they remove

9 the red blood cells, and that contains a lot of the

10 solid material, so that makes up the difference.

11 There's more solid material in blood than there is

12 in serum.

13 Q. Is it also because the alcohol

14 distributes into the water, and serum contains more

15 water than whole blood?

16 A. Since you're removing the red blood

17 cells, yes, sir. That's exactly the same reason.

18 That's the same thing, yes.

19 Q. Knowing that another lab has a test

20 result which I guess is basically 33 points

21 different from yours, does that cause you in any

22 way to question or doubt the accuracy of yours?

23 A. I have been basically running this

24 method for 23-1/2 years. I understand it. I make

25 sure that the samples I run are under control. We


Page 36

1 use standards. We do proficiency tests. We are a

2 reference laboratory for a number of other states,

3 so all of this experience and working with these

4 instruments makes me believe that my method is as

5 good as it comes.

6 Q. And would you agree that the difference

7 between the 87 and 120 is too large a difference;

8 that somebody has made a mistake here?

9 A. In my opinion, most likely. I won't

10 make any blame, but most likely.

11 Q. And what would be your opinion as to the

12 mistake that got made?

13 A. Again, going back to the hospital

14 laboratories, in my experience, hospital

15 laboratories mostly are not known for their

16 accuracy in blood-alcohol testing, because they are

17 more interested in speed and not accuracy. So it's

18 been my experience that laboratories working in

19 hospitals are not as accurate as I am. They do not

20 claim to be.

21 Q. And even though there's hospitals all

22 around the State of Iowa, you still do about four

23 of these a day?

24 A. Somewhere around that, yes, sir.

25 Q. With regard to your laboratory and your


Page 37

1 testing, is it not accurate to say, then, that when

2 you come in and testify in this case, that your

3 testimony will be, based on this sheet here, that

4 Mr. Rokes' blood-alcohol was .087, plus or minus

5 five percent?

6 A. Yes, sir, it is.

7 Q. And you wouldn't try to speculate

8 whether that has been increased or decreased by

9 evaporation?

10 A. No, sir. That may be part of it, but I

11 would not be willing to say that that is the

12 difference. It may be part of the difference, but

13 I really don't know exactly how much or really

14 whether or not it occurred, so --

15 Q. And that's how your lab has retained its

16 integrity, isn't it?

17 A. Over many, many years, yes, sir.

18 Q. And when you -- I can't recall the exact

19 name, but there are -- I guess I'm going to call

20 them like blind tests for proficiency tests that

21 your lab goes through on a periodic basis, is that

22 correct?

23 A. Yes, it is.

24 Q. And how has the Iowa lab done in that

25 proficiency testing?


Page 38

1 A. Very, very well. We perform proficiency

2 testing from the National DOT -- their National

3 Highway Traffic Safety Administration four time a

4 year. We run those samples, and then we turn the

5 results over to the DOT in Cambridge

6 Massachusetts. That way we can compare our results

7 to what is being sent out so we know how our method

8 is working. We are also a reference laboratory for

9 three other states for blood sample testing.

10 Q. What does that mean?

11 A. The three states are Florida,

12 Pennsylvania and Minnesota. Now, in those three

13 states, the state labs license or certify the local

14 hospitals for doing legal alcohols for law

15 enforcement purposes. To be certified, they have

16 to meet certain standards, and these standards

17 include analyzing blood samples and getting the

18 correct results. These are normally sent out to

19 these three states four times a year. They make up

20 these samples and submit them to their local

21 laboratories in state. To check themselves, then,

22 they send those same samples to an out-of-state lab

23 to see whether or not the state is doing it

24 properly.

25 So we are a reference laboratory for


Page 39

1 these three other states, so we can also check our

2 instruments and our method by comparing our results

3 with these other states. So we do check ourselves

4 quite often.

5 Q. Has the DCI lab, over the years, been

6 rated as one of the most accurate labs in state law

7 enforcement?

8 A. In Iowa, yes, sir.

9 Q. And nationwide?

10 A. Nationwide, we are recognized as being a

11 good laboratory. We've done work with several

12 other states in some research that we have been

13 involved in in the last four or five years which

14 involved alcohol testing.

15 Q. In addition to your 23 years of

16 experience, can you tell us Mr. Rayburn, what your

17 educational background is, sir?

18 A. I have a Bachelor of Science Degree in

19 chemistry from Iowa State University over in Ames.

20 Q. And you have spoken to various law

21 enforcement groups over your career, is that

22 accurate?

23 A. Yes, sir.

24 Q. And presented papers or outlines in

25 conjunction with those?


Page 40

1 A. Depending on what the subject was, but

3 yes, sir.

3 Q. And have those subjects included

4 blood-alcohol analysis?

5 A. Not within the State of Iowa. Usually

6 when I'm talking law enforcement or county

7 attorneys or judges, things like that, we are not

8 getting into any detail; we're just telling that we

9 do them. The detail comes in when I go into court

10 to testify on them, when that happens.

11 I have talked to a number of other

12 states and discussed the program and talked about

13 alcohol testing with a number of other people in

14 other states through an organization I belong to,

15 called the International Association for Chemical

16 Testing.

17 Q. Do you have a curriculum vitae that has

18 been prepared, or a resume?

19 A. Yes, sir -- not with me, but I do have

20 one at home.

21 Q. Would it be possible that you could send

22 one to Mr. Wadding and myself?

23 A. Yes.

24 Q. Do you have any objection to that?

25 A. No.


Page 41

1 Q. I'm just about done. I'm assuming

2 you're going to go back home tonight.

3 A. Yes.

4 Q. Regarding you machine in Des Moines,

5 the gas --

6 A. Call it GC.

7 Q. Thank you. You should have helped me

8 out earlier. With that machine, is that calibrated

9 on a regular basis or a scheduled basis, or do you

10 run values to determine if it needs to be

11 calibrated?

12 A. We run calibration every time we use the

13 instrument. So every time it gets run, it gets

14 calibrated both before and after a series of

15 tests. So anybody, whether it's myself or any

16 other criminalist in the laboratory, we always

17 correct it before we start a batch of samples, and

18 we always check it afterwards, so that's done

19 regularly.

20 Q. Is it not true that sometimes in

21 hospitals, that they only periodically calibrate

22 their machines?

23 A. That could be. I wouldn't want to

24 testify on that, because I don't know. But that's

25 possible.


Page 42

1 Q. Do you think that by calibrating your

2 machine before every test, that that helps assure

3 the reliability and integrity of that run?

4 A. In my opinion, that is an absolute

5 necessity.

6 Q. And why is that?

7 A. To make sure that that batch of samples

8 is as accurate as I can get them. So I check it

9 before and after, because if I'm going to go to

10 court to testify on it, I want to make sure that

11 they are as accurate as I can get them.

12 Q. You don't want to have it said that you

13 checked it, calibrated it January 1.

14 A. No, sir.

15 Q. If you could give me just a moment, sir,

16 I may be close to done.

17 (Brief pause.)

18 Q. Do you in the DCI have a protocol that

19 you send to hospitals for blood analysis?

20 A. No, sir. In the State of Iowa, there is

21 no regulation or rule that says that anybody can

22 certify or to control the hospital laboratories.

23 That's up to themselves.

24 Q. Are you familiar with the so-called

25 preliminary breath test machine?


Page 43

1 A. PBTs?

2 Q. Yes.

3 A. Yes, sir, I am.

4 Q. Are those calibrated?

5 A. According to the administrative rules,

6 they should be calibrated at least every 30 days.

7 Q. And what is your understanding of the

8 purpose of that machine?

9 A. The preliminary breath test or PBT is a

10 screening device to help the officer determine

11 whether or not alcohol is present and the

12 approximate amount, so it should be part of the

13 officer's probable cause to ask for a chemical test

14 such as a blood, breath or a urine. It's part of

15 the officer's probable cause.

16 Q. And is there a plus or minus factor that

17 is associated with the readings that those give?

18 A. That's a little bit hard. The

19 instruments themselves, in the rules, should read

20 within plus or minus 20 percent. In the actual,

21 under laboratory conditions, under controlled

22 conditions, they are much much better than that,

23 but out in the field, there's too many variables

24 that I can't control, so I would like to see them

25 plus or minus 20 percent of the actual value, but I


Page 44

1 cannot guarantee it.

2 It also depends on the officer, how good

3 the breath sample is delivered to it by the subject

4 being tested, does the officer wait until the last

5 bit of breath to collect a sample, does he leave

6 the reading on until the maximum alcohol sample is

7 reached. So there's too many variables that I

8 can't control to give you any degree of accuracy on

9 a particular test.

10 Q. Do any of the preliminary breath test

11 machines in Iowa produce a physical piece of paper

12 printout, or do they just digitally show the

13 number?

14 A. We do no want a printout, so they're

15 just a digital display on the front of the unit.

16 All they are intended to be is a preliminary

17 screening test to say yes, there is alcohol present

18 and approximately how much there is. That's all

19 they're intended to do.

20 Q. Mr. Rayburn, I think I'm basically done;

21 but so I don't become surprised, assuming we have a

22 trial in this case, it is my understanding that

23 when you come into court, you will be testifying

24 that Mr. Rokes' blood was found to contain 0.087

25 grams of alcohol in a milliliter of blood, and that


Page 45

1 that alcohol concentration is approximately five

2 percent higher or lower than that, am I correct?

3 A. Yes, sir.

4 Q. You do not intend, and it's beyond your

5 area of expertise, to attempt to say how a person

6 might be affected at that level?

7 A. I would guess that I would be asked

8 that, and I plan on testifying if asked about the

9 affects of alcohol.

10 Q. Okay. Why don't you tell me what it is

11 that you would anticipate that you would testify as

12 to the effects of alcohol.

13 A. Normally I'm asked of the studies that I

14 have participated in and done and whether or not I

15 have an opinion as to when a person becomes

16 intoxicated and whether or not a person with a

17 given alcohol concentration would be under the

18 influence. So it would depend upon the

19 circumstances and the question that's asked of me,

20 but my basic testimony is that in the studies that

21 I have done and participated in, we have found

22 measurable impairment due to alcohol starting

23 at .04 to a .05 alcohol concentration.

24 As the alcohol concentration increases,

25 this impairment just becomes more and more


Page 46

1 measurable and more and more noticeable, and in my

2 opinion, a person of .087 is impaired by alcohol.

3 In my opinion, yes, most definitely they are.

4 Q. And you understand, though, that

5 obviously in Iowa, that a person is not, per se,

6 presumed to be under the influence of alcohol until

7 it is 100?

8 A. No, sir, that is not correct.

9 Q. Okay. And tell me why you think I'm

10 incorrect.

11 A. In Iowa, it is illegal to drive with an

12 alcohol concentration of a .10 or more, or under

13 the influence of alcohol and/or drugs. So the .10

14 is just a, per se, level which the state says it is

15 illegal to drive with a .10 or more, but there's

16 two ways to commit the crime of OWI --with an

17 alcohol concentration of .10 or more, or while

18 under the influence of alcohol.

19 Q. Okay. Let me just read your minute here

20 a second.

21 (Brief pause.)

22 MR. CORRELL: Let me just talk to my

23 client. I may be done.

24 (The deposition was recessed briefly.)

25 MR. CORRELL: Mr. Rayburn, I don't have


Page 47

1 any more questions. I do appreciate your time,

2 sir.

3 (The deposition was concluded at 3:20 p.m.,

4 March 26, 1997,)

update 12/13/16