BREATH ALCOHOL
(BrAC)

See also: Dr. Kurt M. Dubowski's flawed research on retrograde extrapolation, blood and breath alcohol, steepling, and so on.
See also: Widmarks and/or Back Calculation

**Thompson, Robert Q.; "The Thermodynamics of drunk driving", JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION (1997), May. (How Breath alcohol levels are computed.)

Alcohol and the driver," Council on Scientific Affairs, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (1986), 254 (6): 522-527. (1. Alcohol causes deterioration of driving skills beginning at 0.05% BAC (50 mg of ethanol per deciliter of blood) or even lower. Deterioration progresses rapidly with rising BAC to serious impairment of driving skills at BACs of 0.10% and above, according to scientific consensus. 2. Drivers with BACs of 0.05% to 0.10% are significantly represented in road crash statistics. 3. Drivers aged 16 to 21 years have the highest rate of alcohol-involved fatal crashes per mile, with lower average BACs than older drivers. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that the AMA (1) direct public information and education against any drinking by drivers and encourage other organizations to do the same; (2) adopt a position supporting a 0.05% BAC as per se illegal for driving and urge incorporation of that position into all state DUI laws; (3) reaffirm the position supporting 21 years as the legal drinking age, strong penalties for providing alcohol to persons younger than 21 years, and stronger penalties for providing alcohol to drivers younger that 21 years; (4) urge adoption by all states of an administrative suspension or revocation of driver licenses after DUI conviction and mandatory revocation after a specified number of repeat offenses; (5) encourage automobile industry efforts to develop a safety module that thwarts operation of a car by an intoxicated person. Uses Dubowski material from ATR for inter-individual differences and O'Neill for support of 2300:1 breath alcohol."

"The the 2,100:1 ratio is too low has been raised as a possibility to explain why breath analysis values from one well-regarded instrument are on the average 10-15% lower than alcohol concentration in blood samples taken at the same time.")

Alobaidi, T. A.; Hill, D. W.; Payne, J. P.; "Significance of variation in blood: breath partition coefficient of alcohol." BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL (1976), 2 (6050):1479-81, Dec, 18.

Avant, L. L. "Alcohol impairs visual presence/absence detection more for females than for males," PERCEPTION AND PSYCHOPHYSICS (1990), 48 (3): 285-290. (90 male and female subjects, Breath alcohol, fasted given 3 levels of alcohol 0.0%, 0.5%, or 1.0%. Alcohol produced higher blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels, and higher detection threshold durations, for females than for males. These results indicate that alcohol influences precortical visual processing and that the influence is greater for females than for males. The higher bioavailability of alcohol in women is likely due to less gastric oxidation of ethanol in women than in men.?)

Breen, M.; Dang, Q. T.; Jaing, J. T.; Body, G. N.; "The Effect of a 'One for the Road' drink of hard liquor, beer or wine on peak breath alcohol concentration in a social drinking environment with food consumption," MEDICINE, SCIENCE AND THE LAW AND LAW (1998), 38 (1): 62-9. (BrAC and food, but interesting.)

Brookhuis, K. A.; de Waard, D.; "The Use of psychophysiology to assess driver status," ERGONOMICS (1993): 36 (3): 1099-110. [20 subjects completed an on-the-road driving experiment, consisting of two different tests on two separate days. A two-part test was administered with while subjects were under the influence of alcohol (Breath alcohol< = 0.05%); a four-part test was administered without alcohol consisting of 2.5 h driving test under vigilance conditions on a quiet highway. The Changes in relevant physiological parameters, such as ECG and EEG, reflected changes in driver status and predicted driving impairment. Impairment of driving performance was measured in a standard driving test (SD lateral position and SD steering wheel movements) and in recently developed car-following test (reaction to speed changes of a leading car) in the Netherlands.]

Caplan, Y. H.; "The Determination of alcohol in blood and breath," In; Saferstein, R.; Forensic Science Handbook, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1984, 592-653. (Dubowski Method of BrAC and chart.)

Carey, K. B., Hustad, J. T.; "Are retrospectively reconstructed blood alcohol concentrations accurate? Preliminary results from a field study", JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (2002), 63(6):762-6. (44 persons were studied, 64% male and 34% female.)The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between blood alcohol concentration (BAC) derived from an invivo breath test and retrospective estimates of BAC (eBAC) for the same drinking event. The relationship was expected to be lower at higher levels of BAC as a result of inaccuracies in the recall of self-report data. Conclusions: Although self-report data can be used to approximate the BAC obtained during a naturally occurring drinking event the relationship is moderated by measured level of intoxication. Retrospective calculations are less accurate when estimating higher BACs.

Cole-Hardin, S.; Wilson, J. R.; "Ethanol metabolism in men and women," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1987), 48 (4): 380-387. (Twins and breath alcohol reproducibility.)

Dubowski, K. and, Essary, Natalie A.; "Alcohol analysis of stored whole-breath samples by automated gas chromatography," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY ( 1982), 6, September/October: 217-221.

Dubowski, K.; "An automated gas chromatographic method for analysis of ethanol in breath", CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1974), 20: 861. (abstract)

Dubowski, K. M., "Biological aspects of breath-alcohol analysis", CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1974), 20 (2): 294-9.

Dubowski, K.; O'Neill, B.; "The Blood/breath ratio of ethanol", CLINICAL CHEMISTRY(1979), 25: 114. (abstract)

Dubowski, K.; "Breath-alcohol analysis after sorption on calcium sulfate: in vitro and in vivo studies", In: Goldberg, L., ed. ALCOHOL, DRUGS, AND TRAFFIC SAFETY, Stockholm, June, 1980. Vol. II Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International, 1981, p637-47.

Dubowski, K.; Essary, Natalie A.; "Evaluation of commercial breath-alcohol simulators : further studies," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1991), 15, (September/October): 272-275.

Dubowski, K.; "Letters to the Editor : Duplicate breath-alcohol testing," THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF FORENSIC MEDICINE AND PATHOLOGY(1988), 9 (3): 272.

Dubowski, K.; "Quality assurance in breath-alcohol analysis," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1994) 18 (October) p306-311.

Dubowski, K.; Essary, Natalie A.; "Response of breath-alcohol analyzers to acetone," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1983), 7: 231-34.

Dubowski, K.; Essary, Natalie A.; "Response of breath-alcohol analyzers to acetone : further studies," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1984) 8 (September/October): 205-8.

Dubowski, K.; " Technology of breath-alcohol analysis," DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 92-1728. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Washington, D. C., 1992, 42p.

Fillmore, M. T.; Vogel-Sprott, M.; "Expectancies about alcohol-induced impairment predict individual differences in responses to alcohol and placebo," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1995), 56 (1): 90-8. (Social drinkers (N=81) motor skills tests to evaluate their performance after drinking (breath). Subjects who expected greater impairment displayed poorer performance under alcohol (low dose) and under placebo. This evidence calls attention to the importance of expectancies as a factor they may contribute to the understanding of individual differences in behavior under alcohol and a placebo.)

Forney, R. B.; Hughes, F., W.; Harger, R. N.; Richards, A. B.; "Alcohol distribution in the vascular system: concentration of orally administered alcohol in blood from various points in the vascular system, and in rebreathed air, during absorption," QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1964), 25: 205-17. (8 young men, low sample)

Friel, P. N.; Baer, J. S.; Logan, B. K.; "Variability of ethanol absorption and breath concentrations during large-scale alcohol administration study," ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (1995), 19 (4): 1055-60. (Breath alcohol.)

Gabrielli, W. F.; Nagoshi, C. T.; Rhea, S. A.; Wilson, J. R.; "Anticipated and subjective sensitivities to alcohol," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1991), 52: 205-214. (387 participants of CARTA, breath alcohol, people with little drinking experience may overestimate how intoxicated they will be, that heavier drinkers may develop chronic tolerance to the intoxicating effects and that denial may play a role in both subjective and anticipated sensitivity.)

Gabrielli, W. F.; Nagoshi, C. T.; Rhea, S. A.; Wilson, J. R.; "Anticipated and subjective sensitivities to alcohol," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1991), 52: 205-214. (387 participants of CARTA, breath alcohol, people with little drinking experience may overestimate how intoxicated they will be, that heavier drinkers may develop chronic tolerance to the intoxicating effects and that denial may play a role in both subjective and anticipated sensitivity.)

Goldberg, I., "Summary of discussion," ALCOHOL DRUGS AND TRAFFIC SAFETY Vol. II,Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International, 1981, 427. (860-876). (Part of the discussion centers around the blood-breath ratio and knowledge that the ratio under reports BrAC as defined as 1:2100.)

Gubala, W., Zuba, D., Pickoszewski, W.; "Variability of BAC/BrAC and SAC/BrAC ratios during absorption and elimination of alcohol", Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety, Montreal, Canada, August 4-9, 2002. Volume 3, pp 8031244. This is paper was not PEER REVIEWED.

Gullberg, R. G.; "An application of probability theory to a group of breath-alcohol and blood-alcohol," JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES (1990), 35 (6): 1342-1352. (Converting breath alcohol to BAC.)

Gullberg, R. G.; "Considering measurement variability when performing retrograde extrapolation of breath alcohol results," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1994), 18 (2): 126-7.

Gullberg, R. G.; "Employing simulated date to illustrate an important cause of the 'steepling' effect in breath alcohol analysis," MEDICINE, SCIENCE, AND THE LAW (1994), 34 (4): 321-3. (The review illustrates the experimental design contributing most to the steeping phenomenon encountered in breath alcohol analyses.)

Gullberg, R. G.; "Statistical evaluation and reporting of blood alcohol/breath ration distribution data," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1994), 15 (6): 343-44.

Hernandez-Collados, A.; Sanchez-Turet, M.; Sanchez-Sastre, J.; "Different cognitive effects in the increasing and decreasing limb of the metabolic curve of ethanol," MEDICAL SCIENCE RESEARCH (1998), 26: 173-175. (20 men and 19 women, single dose of ethanol 1 g/kg, Breath alcohol, mean BAC of 0.24 g/l, subjects performance decreased significantly during absorption. This impairment was related to perceptual motor and visual memory processes. In the elimination phase, at a mean BAC or 0.47 g/l, there was no decrease in performance. We may conclude that behavior was different in the ascending and descending phases. Very low alcohol doses, much lower than that legally permitted for drivers in various countries, produce a marked impairment over a period of time after ingestion of alcohol.)

Hernandez-Collados, A.; Rodamilans, M.; Sanchez-Turet, M.; "Influence of acetaldehyde on cognitive performance shortly after ingesting ethanol," MEDICAL SCIENCE RESEARCH (1997), 25: 593-96. (20 males, 19 females, breath alcohol , C 1 g kg-1 of alcohol and perceptive-motor and cognitive impairment tests were deteriorated.)

Heath, A. C.; Martin, N. G.; "Genetic differences in psychomotor performance decrement after alcohol: a multivariate analysis," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1992), 53: 262-71. (Food and Breath.)

Hindmarch, I.; Bhatti, J. Z.; Starmer, G. A.; Mascord, D. J.; Kerr, J. S.; Sherwood, N.: "The Effects of alcohol on the cognitive function of males and females and on skills relating to car driving," HUMAN PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY (1992), 7: 105-114. (9 males and 9 females, four doses of alcohol at 1 g per kg body weight or a placebo, Breath. Subjects were tested on two batteries of psychological tests related to skills involved in driving. The results showed a linear increase in the disruption of performance with dose for many of the tests, particularly those involving psychomotor function. It was demonstrated that on certain tasks males were affected ore by alcohol and females. In conclusion, moderate doses of alcohol , resulting in BACs of 0.05 to 0.08 g/100 ml, can produce significant deficits in perceptual and motor skills related to driving a vehicle.)

Hlastala, M. P.; "The alcohol breath test--a review," JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY (1998), 84 (2): 401-408. (The alcohol breath test is evaluated for variability in response to changes in physiological parameters. The ABT was originally developed in the 1950's, at a time when understanding of pulmonary physiology was limited. Physiological studies now show that alcohol is exchanged entirely within the conducting airways via diffusion from the bronchial circulation. Recognition that alcohol exchanges in the airways, rather than the alveoli, open up the ABT for a new wave of research to improve the accuracy of BrAC measurements. Dubowski and Jones have said for years it under reports the true BAC by up to + 20% as.)

Jansen, A. A. I.; deGier, J. J.; Slangen, J. L.; "Alcohol effects on signal detection performance," NEUROPSYCHOBIOLOGY(1985), 14: 83-87. (12 male subjects and breath alcohol. It is concluded that alcohol affects signal detection performance under conditions of low signal probability. Individuals with a relatively low performance level are more susceptible to the effects of alcohol. Small sample.)

Jones, A. W.; "Blood and breath alcohol concentrations," BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL (1992), 305 (6859): 955.

Jones, B. M.; "Cognitive performance measured on the ascending and descending limb of the blood alcohol curve," PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGICAL (1972), 23: 99-1972. (Breath alcohol and 40 medical students and elimination rate was positively related to cognitive performance.)

Jones, A. W.; Andersson, L.; "Comparison of ethanol concentrations in venous blood and end-expired breath during a controlled drinking study", FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL (2003), 123 (1):18-25. (9 male subject and 9 female subjects.) "We found no significant gender-related differences in BAC/BrAC ratios. being 2553+/-576 for men and 2417+/-494 for women (t=1.34, P.0.05). The mean rate of ethanol disappearance from blood was 0.157+/-0.02l mg/(g per hour), which was very close to the elimination rate from breath of 0.161+/0.021 mg/(2l per hour) (P>0.05). Breath-test results obtained with intoxilyzer 5000S (mg 2l per hour) were generally less than the coexisting concentration of ethanol in venous blood (mg/g), which give an advantage to the suspect who provides breath compared with blood in cases close to a threshold alcohol limit."

Jones, A. W.; "Concentration-time profiles of ethanol in arterial and venous blood and end-expired breath during and after intravenous infusion," JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES (1997), 42 (6): 1088-94. 13 men given an infusion of alcohol for 30 min. Measurement taken at 17 timed intervals of blood and breath. In the post-absorptive phase of ethanol kinetics, when alcohol has mixed with the total body water, VBAC exceeds ABAC by about 1-2 mg/100 mL on average.

Jones, A. W.; "DUI defenses" ; In: Steven B. Karch, Ed.; Drug Abuse Handbook, CRC Press, 1998, 1138p. [ Include: drinking after the offense; laced drinks; rising blood alcohol concentrations; pathological states and ethanol pharmacokinetics; drug-alcohol interactions; gastric alcohol dehydrogenase; endogenous ethanol and the autobrewery syndrome; urine samples; blood samples--use of alcohol swabs and disinfectants, trauma and intravenous fluids (sample should be taken above the IV site), blood-water content and hematocrit (serum or plasma and whole blood); breath-alcohol analysis--mouth alcohol and the use of mouthwash preparations; regurgitation and gastro esophageal reflux disease; dentures and denture adhesives; alleged interfering substances in breath; variability in blood/breath alcohol ratio; pulmonary function; breathing pattern and hypo- and hyperthermia.]

**Jones, W. A.; "Measuring alcohol in blood and breath for forensic purposes--a historical review," FORENSIC SCIENCE REVIEW (1996), 8 (1), 14-43. Historical overview of blood and breath testing, legislation, and scientists.

Jones, A. W.; "Pharmacokinetics of ethanol in saliva: comparison with blood and breath alcohol profiles, subject feelings of intoxication, and diminished performance," CLINICAL CHEMISTRY (1993), 39 (9): 1837-1844. (21 men who were given 0,68 g/kg body weight. Near the time of obtaining body fluids (breath, blood, saliva) subjects estimated their feelings of intoxication, [body sway, roving ocular movements (ROM), hand tremor, and positional alcohol nystagmus (PAN) were quantitatively recorded. The concentration time profiles of ethanol in the blood, bread and saliva agreed well with in individuals, but large variations occurred between subjects. Standing steadiness and hand steadiness were highest at the time of reaching the peak concentrations of ethanol in the body. PAN was evident in most subjects between 60 and 102 min after the start of drinking, ROM appeared mainly during the postabsortptive phase between 120-420 min. BAC threshold were between 500 and 700 mg/L (50-70 mg/dL) when with diminished performance and recovered to baseline values. BrAC was analyzed at 2100:1. Tests began at 9:00 am on an empty stomach meal was served 5 hours after drinking started. Maximum impairment coincided with the time of reaching the peak concentrations of ethanol. On reaching the postpeak phase, the degree of impairment rapidly diminished.)

Jones, A. W.; Andersson, Lars; "Variability of the blood/breath alcohol ratio in drinking drivers," JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES (1996), 41 (6): 916-921.

Kechagias, S.; Jonsson, K.; Jones, A. W.; ""Breath tests for alcohol in gatroesophageal reflux disease (letter to the editor)," ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE (1999), 130 (4, part 1), 328-9. ("the blood-alcohol concentration always exceeded the breath-alcohol concentration. This can be explained by an arterial-venous difference in ethanol concentrations, mainly seen during the absorption phase. Although several participants has symptoms of gastric reflux during these experiments, no widely aberrant breath-alcohol readings were observed compared with the concentrations in venous blood. We conclude that the probability of a breath-alcohol test being invalidated because of alcohol refluxing from the stomach into the mouth in patients with GERD is very small."

Kechagias, S.; Jonsson, K.; Franzen, T.; Andersson, L.; Jones, A. W., "Reliability of breath-alcohol analysis in individuals with gatroesophageal reflux disease," JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES (1999), 44 (4): 814-818. During the absorption phase of alcohol, which occurred during the first 90 minutes after the start of drinking, BrAC (mg/210L) tended t be the same or higher than venous BAC (mg/dL). In the post-peak phase, the BAC always exceeded BrAC. Four of the 10 subjects definitely experienced gastric reflux during the study although this did not result in widely deviant BrAC readings compared with BAC when sampling occurred at 5-min intervals. We conclude that the risk of alcohol erupting from the stomach into the mouth owing to gastric reflux, and falsely increasing the result of an evidential breath-alcohol test is highly improbable.)

Krull, K. R., Smith L. T.; Sinha, R.; Parsons, O. A.; "Simple reaction time event-related potentials: effects of alcohol and sleep deprivation," ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (1993), 17 (4): 771-777. (54 males, breath alcohol, two groups .05 and .08, and sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation slowed initial stimulus detection, whereas alcohol slowed later processing and response activation.)

Labianca, D. A.; Simpson, G.; "Statistical analysis of blood-to breath-alcohol ratio data in the logarithm-transformed and non-transformed modes," JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY (1996): 34 (2): 111-117. (79 subjects, 137 tests and 2100:1 underestimates blood-breath partition ratio.)

Mason, M. F.; Dubowski, K.; "Breath as a specimen for analysis for ethanol and other low molecular weight alcohols": In Garriott, J. C., ed., Medico legal aspects of alcohol determination in biological specimens, Littleton, MA: PSG Publishing Co., 1988, p101-110.

Maylor, E. A.; Rabbit, P. M. A.; "Effects of practice and alcohol on performance of a perceptual-motor task," THE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (1987), 39A: 777-795. (40 male and 40 female subjects, breath alcohol. The results demonstrated that: (1) results improved with practice; (2) with alcohol, 0.8 mg/kg body weight, subjects were more variable and less accurate; (3) improvement with alcohol was greater that without alcohol, but as performance was impaired by alcohol, there was greater scope for improvement; (4) those who practiced with alcohol still improved when switched to no alcohol late in practice; and (5) alcohol had the same effect early and late in practice.)

Mills, K. C.; Parkman, K. M.; Spruill, S. E.; "A PC-based software test for measuring alcohol and drug effects in human subjects," ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (1996), 20 (9): 1582-91. (Breath alcohol with 24 subjects with significant falling and rising impairment effects on eye movements, eye-hand coordination, color, etc.)

Nagoshi, C. T.; Wilson, J. R.; Rodriguez, L. A.; "Impulsivity, sensation seeking and behavioral and emotional responses to alcohol," ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (1991), 15 (4): 661-7. (342 pairs of twins, impulsivity was significantly correlated with high breath alcohol levels.)

Nagoshi, C. T.; Wilson, J. R.; "Long-term repeatability of human alcohol metabolism, sensitivity and acute tolerance," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1989), 50 (2): 162-169. (Twins 3 to 39 months later and breath alcohol.)

Nicholson, M. E.; Wang, M., Airhinenbuwa, C. O.; Mahoney, B. S.; Christina, R.; Mahoney, D. W.; "Variability in behavioral impairment involved in the rising and falling BAC curve," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1992), 53: 349-356. (breath alcohol).

Oei, T. P. S.; Kershbaumer, D. M.;"Peer attitudes, sex and the effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE (1990), 16: 135-146. (18 male and female subjects aged 18-25 in a driving simulation with breath alcohol levels of .04-.08. Subjects in the "for drinking and driving" condition perceived themselves to be more capable than they actually were and drove increasingly faster and made more mistakes than subjects in the "against drinking driving" condition when under the influence of alcohol. Significant sex differences were observed only for performance on the driving simulator. Males, in the main, engaged in more dangerous driving and risk taking in simulated driving conditions than females.)

Pavlic, M.; Grubwieser, P.;Libiseller, K.; Rabl, W.; "Elimination rates of breath alcohol", FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, (2007), 171 (1):16-21. Legal driving limits are set coequally with 0.5g/L blood alcohol concentration (BAC) or 0.25 mg/L breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) in Austria as well as in other European countries. As mostly some time elapses between BrAC measurement and driving offense, a back calculation of hourly BrAC elimination rates can thereby help to avoid unnecessary variances. A study with 59 participants was performed under social conditions. BrAC was determined with the legally accredited Alcotest 7110 MK III A every 30 min. and concomitantly venous blood samples were drawn. Five hundred and four BrAC/BAC value pairs were evaluated. The overall mean peak BrAC was calculated with 0.456 mg/L (+/-0.119 mg/L standard deviation). The mean hourly BrAC elimination rate was overall determined with 0.082 per h (0.050-0.114, 95% range). Mean rate for females (0.087 mg/L h(-1)) and the according 95% limits were statistically significantly higher than of males (mean rate 0.078 mg/L h(-1), p<0.04). Our results confirm the possibility to implement hourly BrAc elimination rates, provided that adequate statistical ranges and basic forensic scientific rules ht have been set up for alcohol back calculations are observed.

Pishkin, V.; Lawrence, B. E.; Bourne, L. E.; "Cognitive and elctro-physiologic parameters during ascending and descending limbs of blood alcohol curve," ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (1983), 7: 76-81. (40 men aged 21-30, and peak breath alcohol in the range of 0.08-0.10. Major findings were: cognitive performance was impaired by alcohol ingestion; autonomic arousal was significantly greater after alcohol than after placebo; number and amplitude of skin response were greater on the ascending than on the descending limb; the anticipated effects of failure on cognitive performance were ameliorated by alcohol; and differential effects of alcohol on the psychophysiological parameters were demonstrated.)

Rohrbaugh, J. W.; Stapleton, J. M.; Parasuraman, R. ; Frowein, H. W.; Adinoff, B.; Varner, J. L.; Zubovic, E. A.; Lane, E. A.; Eckardt, M. J.: Linnoila, M.; "Alcohol intoxication reduces visual sustained attention," PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY (1988), 96: 442-446. (12 male social drinkers, 4 doses over three days, breath alcohol, and light meals. Intoxication lowered the overall level of detection performance, and in addition produced dose-related increases in the rate of performance decrement over time. Analysis of performance data using techniques derived from Signal Detection Theory indicated that the decrements were due specifically to alterations in perceptual sensitivity. Examination of eye movements and blinks indicated that the effects of ethanol were not mediated peripherally. Rather, alcohol appears to have deleterious effects on central processing capacity and the availability of capacity over time. The alcohol-related failure of sustained attention may contribute to increased accident risk in tasks requiring continuous performance.)

Spector, N. H.; " Alcohol breath tests: gross errors in current methods of measuring alveolar gas concentrations," SCIENCE (1971), 172: 57-9. (BAC and breath alcohol levels were compared.)

Sutherland, M. L.; Borkenstein, R. F.; "A Graphical analysis of blood-alcohol levels in two groups of drinking drivers," In: Alcohol, and Traffic Safety: Proceedings of the fourth international conference on alcohol and traffic safety, December 6-10, 1965, Bloomington, Indiana, 145-149. (Grand Rapids, Michigan breath alcohol study of 5,985 crashes, 13,575 subjects.)

Thurman, R. G.; Cheren, I.; Forman, D.; Ewing, J. A.; Glassman, E.; "Swift increase in blood metabolism in humans," ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (1989), 13 (4): 572-576. (Breath and rates of elimination on 115 males.)

Thompson, Robert Q.; "The Thermodynamics of drunk driving", JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION (1997), May. (How Breath alcohol levels are computed.)

Vogel-Sprott, M.; "Acute recovery and tolerance to low doses of alcohol: differences in cognitive and motor skill performance," PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY (1979), 61: 287-291. (Two groups of male social drinkers [10 subjects] were given low doses of alcohol four times and trained on pursuit rotor and decoding tasks and breath alcohol was tested on both the ascending and descending Breath alcohol curve. After peak BrAC was reached acute recovery was evident in coding at a falling BrAC where PR remained impaired. These differences in impairment between tasks on the two limbs of the BAC curve suggested that conflicting evidence on the sensitivity of various tasks to alcohol effects may be obtained when studies examine task performance without respect to the limb of the BAC curve. Coding and tolerance were affected by repeated exposure. It was suggested that the phenomena of acute recovery and tolerance may be positively correlated, and different for different types of tasks.)

Williams, P. M.; "Analytical and physiological specificity issues in breath alcohol analysis," ALCOHOL, DRUGS, AND TRAFFIC SAFETY, (Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety, ICADTSA-T95; http://www.raru.adelaide.edu.au/T95/paper/s5p1.html (Widmarks used in Wales and British Courts. "In most cases the defendant will claim they had consumed, prior to driving, alcohol only in such quantity as to give rise to a reading not more than half the legal limit, which creates an impossible gap to be accounted for by the alleged interferant." The driver's own account of pre-driving consumption which, as one British judge so aptly put it is "so often the subject of dubious testimony".)

Williams, J. G.; "Experiences with alcohol and ability to discriminate legal intoxication statues: a field study,: ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS (1991), 16: 355-362. (Subjects, 99--79 males, 20 females, were recruited in two bar room settings and administered Breath alcohol tests and questionnaires and asked to estimate their BAC. Errors in estimation were most often in the direction of overestimating intoxication. There was also a sex of subject effect, with males being heavier drinkers and estimating intoxication more poorly than females. Results are discussed in terms of situation and expectancy effects.

Wilson, J. R.; Nagoshi, C. T.; "One-month repeatability of alcohol metabolism, sensitivity and acute tolerance." JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1987), 48: 437-442. (N=34 CARTA subjects 30 and 60 days after initial testing. Testing done with food and breath alcohol.)

Winek, C. L.; Murphy, K. L.; "The Rate and kinetic order of ethanol elimination," FORENSIC SCIENCES INTERNATIONAL (1984), 25: 159-168. (Breath, rate of elimination increases with practice.)

Wright, Neil R.; Cameron, Douglas; "The Influence of habitual alcohol intake on breath-alcohol concentrations following prolonged drinking", ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM (1998), 33 (5): 494-501.

Zack, M,; Vogel-Sprott, M.; "Response outcomes affect the retention of behavioral tolerance to alcohol: information incentive," PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY (1993), 113 (2): 269-73. (24 men, Breath alcohol mean < .08. Despite a monetary incentive to perform well tolerance to alcohol and a compensatory response to placebo were both disrupted by withholding[knowledge of response] KR. The results were interpreted in terms of information about performance conveyed by KR.

updated 12/12/16