ALCOHOL AND CRIME

See also: Alcohol and Behavior
See also: Behind Bars I and II
See also: Alcohol Economics

**Abasing, Nathan, TEENS AND DRUNK DRIVING, San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, Inc., c2000, 96p. (Examines teens and drunk driving, discussing how drinking affects driving ability, who drinks and drives and why, the law and drunk driving, and preventing drunk driving tragedies.

"Alcohol and crime: An analysis of national data on the prevalence of alcohol involvement in crime," Bureau of Justice Statistics, revised 4/28/98, 33p. "On an average day in 1996, corrections authorities supervised an estimated 5.3 million convicted offenders. Nearly 2 million (about 36%) had been drinking alcohol when they committed their offense."

"Alcohol and Crime 2002 to 2008." http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&lid=2313 go to page 2 of the list for "Alcohol and Crime: Data from 2002 to 2008".

**"Alcohol and the driver," Council on Scientific Affairs, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (1986), 254 (6): 522-527. (1. Alcohol causes deterioration of driving skills beginning at 0.05% BAC (50 mg of ethanol per deciliter of blood) or even lower. Deterioration progresses rapidly with rising BAC to serious impairment of driving skills at BACs of 0.10% and above, according to scientific consensus. 2. Drivers with BACs of 0.05% to 0.10% are significantly represented in road crash statistics. 3. Drivers aged 16 to 21 years have the highest rate of alcohol-involved fatal crashes per mile, with lower average BACs than older drivers. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that the AMA (1) direct public information and education against any drinking by drivers and encourage other organizations to do the same; (2) adopt a position supporting a 0.05% BAC as per se illegal for driving and urge incorporation of that position into all state DUI laws; (3) reaffirm the position supporting 21 years as the legal drinking age, strong penalties for providing alcohol to persons younger than 21 years, and stronger penalties for providing alcohol to drivers younger that 21 years; (4) urge adoption by all states of an administrative suspension or revocation of driver licenses after DUI conviction and mandatory revocation after a specified number of repeat offenses; (5) encourage automobile industry efforts to develop a safety module that thwarts operation of a car by an intoxicated person. Uses Dubowski material from ATR for inter individual differences and O'Neill for support of 2300:1 breath alcohol.)

Alcohol Facilitates Crime (June 2003 issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research).
The relationship between alcohol and aggressive behavior is well known. The modulating effects of personality and anger of alcohol-related aggression, however, are less clear. A study of drinkers' facial expressions of anger finds that drinking alcohol may place those individuals with a tendency toward anger at greater risk of becoming aggressive.

"The association between alcohol and aggression is huge, according to Robert O. Pihl, professor of psychology and psychiatry at McGill University. "Alcohol is involved in half of all murders, rapes and assaults," he said. "But the dynamics of this association are complicated, which is why any research that focuses on elucidating this relationship is important for society in general."

Researchers recruited 136 male social drinkers between the ages of 18 and 30 years from undergraduate psychology courses and via local media advertisements. During a 20-minute session (followed by a 10-minute waiting period): the alcohol group (n=63) consumed two beverages consisting of ethanol and orange juice, bringing them to a blood alcohol concentration of 0.08%; the control group (n=73) consumed two beverages consisting of just orange juice. Participants were told they were then going to compete against another individual on a "reaction time" task, during which they might receive electric shocks from their opponent. While engaged in this fictitious task, which included both high and low shock levels or "provocation," the participants' experience of anger was unobtrusively assessed using the Facial Action Coding System, which classifies all observable facial activity into 44 unique "action units.

Intoxicated participants displayed more facial expressions of anger than sober participants. "If individuals tend to express their anger outwardly," said Zeichner, "alcohol will 'turn up the volume,' so that such a person will express anger more frequently and more intensely. A heightened response will most likely occur when the provocation against the drinker is a strong one, and will less likely occur when the individual is experiencing a low provocation and is sober."

Allen, M. J.; Abrams, B. W.; Ginsburg, A. P.; Weintraub, L.; Forensic aspects of vision and highway safety, Boca Raton, Florida, Lawyers and Judges Publishing Company, 1996, pp. 269-271. (As soon as you start to drink, your blood alcohol concentrations, BAC, starts to rise. Driving impairment increases directly with BAC level. Goes on to quote Garriott about color and glare recovery, Brecher about binocular coordination, Moskowitz and visual tracking, and Newman and visual acuity.)

Behind bars and Behind bars II (CASA)
"Behind bars : substance abuse and America's prison population", Charles E. Culpepper Foundation and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. January, 1998.

"Behind bars II: substance abuse and American's prison population", the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, Columbia University, February 2010. Look under the "Library" pull down tab under "Publications".
http://www.casacolumbia.org/pplsearch.aspx

Blanke, R.; Caplan, Y.; Chamberlain, R., et al.; "Drug concentrations and driving impairment," JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (1985), 254: 2618-21. (Impairment of driving performance is, in the most general sense a failure to exercise the expected degree of prudence or control to ensure safe operation of the vehicle. Manifestations of such impairment are many; driving at a speed that is inappropriate to the flow of surrounding traffic, weaving within a lance of traffic or frequent lane changes, following cars too closely, failing to signal major changes of course, failing to observe traffic signs or signals, as well as many others. These are the sings of impairment that, when observed by law enforcement officers, merit investigation.)

Breen, M.; Dang, Q. T.; Jaing, J. T.; Body, G. N.; "The Effect of a 'One for the Road' drink of hard liquor, beer or wine on peak breath alcohol concentration in a social drinking environment with food consumption," MEDICINE, SCIENCE AND THE LAW AND LAW (1998), 38 (1): 62-9. (breath alcohol and food, but interesting.)

Cohen, D. A.; Mason, K.; Scribner, R.; "The Population consumption model, alcohol control practices, and alcohol-related traffic fatalities," PREVENTION MAGAZINE (2001), 34:187-197. Ninety-seven (91%) cities participated in this study. Regulations related to alcohol accessibility, licenser of alcohol outlets, disciplinary procedures of alcohol outlets, and enforcement of blood alcohol concentration laws were associated with lower rates of fatalities. Cities with 9 or fewer of the 20 regulations had 1.46-fold greater alcohol-related traffic fatality rates than cities with 15 or more of these regulations. Beer consumption was found be be a potential mediator in the effect of regulations on traffic fatalities. Conclusions: Alcohol beverages regulations are associated with alcohol-related traffic fatalities. Localities should consider greater restrictions on alcohol accessibility, stricter disciplinary measures for violations, and stricter licenser requirements as a potential means to reduce alcohol-related traffic fatalities."

Cook, Philip J.; Moore, Michael J.; "The economics of alcohol abuse and alcohol-control policies," "HEALTH AFFAIRS (2002), 21 (2): 120-133. (Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consumption and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding form the economics literature is that consumers tend to drink less ethanol, and have fewer alcohol-related problems, when alcoholic beverage prices are increased or alcohol availability is restricted. That set of findings is relevant for policy purposes because alcohol abuse imposes large 'external' costs on others. Important challenges remain, including developing a better understanding of the effects of drinking on labor-market productivity.

"The deleterious effects of alcohol consumption on health and safety constitute a substantial economic burden, reducing our overall standard of living. Chronic heavy drinking causes organ damage that results in disability and early death. Other possible consequences include cognitive impairment, addictions, reduced productivity, neglect of family responsibilities, and birth defects. The acute effects of alcohol abuse are still more costly; traumatic injury and property damage from accidents, criminal victimization, domestic violence, unwanted sexual encounters and venereal diseases, and hangover. In sum, alcohol is not just another commodity. Around the world, historically and currently, public concern about the consequences of excess alcohol consumption for individual health and community well-being has been incorporated in cultural norms, which are often reinforced by private rules and government regulation.)

DeYoung, D. J.; "An Evaluation of the effectiveness of alcohol treatment, driver license actions and jail terms in reducing drunk driving recidivism in California." ADDICTION (1997) 92 (8): 989-97. (Results of the analyses showed that for all levels of prior DUI convictions, combining alcohol treatment with either driver license restriction or suspension is associated with the lowest DUI recidivism rates. Based on this research, and the results of prior studies, it can be persuasively argued that combining licenses actions with alcohol treatment represents the most effective sanction combination for combating DUI recidivism.)

DeJong, W.; Hingson, R.; "Strategies to reduce driving under the influence of alcohol," ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH (1998), 19:359-86. (Review to update literature on alcohol related deaths since 1988. Four primary areas are include: general deterrence policies, alcohol control policies, mass communications campaigns and community traffic safety programs. "People who drive after heavy drinking (defined as five or more drinks consumed on a single occasion) are much more likely to engage in other risky driving behaviors, such as speeding, running red lights, driving after other drug use, and failing to wear seat belts, " p. 362.)

"Drinking and driving," ALCOHOL ALERT (1996), 31, PH 362, January. ["The many skills involved in driving are not all impaired at the same BAC's (3). For example, a driver's ability to divide attention between two or more sources of visual information can be impaired by BAC's of 0.02 percent or lower (3-5). However, it is not until BACs of 0.05 percent or more are reached that impairment occurs consistently in eye movements, glare resistance, visual perceptions, reaction time, certain types of steering tasks, information processing, and other aspects of psychomotor performance (3,4,6,7).]

Easdon, C. M.; Vogel-Sprott, M.; "Drug free behavioral history affects social drinkers' tolerance to a challenge dose of alcohol," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1996), 57 (6): 591-7. (The results of the present research showed that a history of drug-free training under environmentally induced impairment reduced the impairing effect of a challenge dose of alcohol. Performance under alcohol represents a different condition, and much research shows that informative feedback during drugged performance is a powerful factor that enhances tolerance to alcohol-induced impairment, (Vogel-Sprott, 1992). The findings are consistent with the hypothesis of acquired behavioral compensation for impairment, and show that drug-free training under conditions that impair performance many enhance tolerance to alcohol-induced impairment.)

Fagan, D.; Tiplady, B.; Scott, D. B.; "Effects of ethanol on psychomotor performance," BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANESTHESIOLOGY (1987), 59: 961-5. Feldstein, A.: "The Metabolism of alcohol: on the validity of the Widmark equations, in obesity, and in racial and ethnic groups," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1978), 39 (5): 926-932. (Food, obese, and non WASP.)

Farrimond, Thomas; "Effects of alcohol on visual constancy values and possible relation to driving performance, " PERCEPTUAL AND MOTOR SKILLS (1990), 70: 291-295. [The effects of visual constancy were studied in 21 men and women aged 21-23 over two days. Subjects were tested with and without food. The results indicate that shape/size constancy may be reduced by alcohol. The author hypothesizes that hazards would then appear 20% further away, and a driver who should apply the break at 50 m(eters) may delay brake application until only 40 m(eters) away. Unknown if BAC or breath alcohol.]

Fillmore, M. T.; Vogel-Sprott, M.; "Evidence that expectancies mediate behavioral impairment under alcohol," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1996), 57 (6): 598-603. (The results are consistent with previous research on alcohol placebos that showed that subjects who were challenged to expect intense impairment form alcohol displayed improved psychomotor performance under a placebo. Similarly, the reduced impairment under alcohol displayed by Group AC in the present study is consistent with a compensatory response evoked by the expectation of intense impairment. The most experienced drinkers were least affected by this expectancy challenge and thus displayed more impairment. This finding is consistent with the notion that alcohol expectancies of experienced drinkers are more resistant to change and are less likely to be revised inspire of new information concerning alcohol effects. Thus, it appears that both antecedent and consequent events can affect drinkers' behavior under alcohol.)

Fillmore, M. T.; Vogel-Sprott, M.; "Resistance to cognitive impairment under alcohol: the role of environmental consequences," EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY (1997) 5 (3): 251-5. (breath alcohol, 40 male social drinkers in groups of ten and practice of rate of information processing. The processing rates for M (money) and N (no consequence) were slower with alcohol and those of group C (without alcohol or consequence. Group MI (money or information) displayed no significant reduction in processing rate under alcohol. Resistance to the impairing effects of alcohol on information processing is enhanced by a rewarding consequence that conveys information about the adequacy of performance under the drug.)

**Finnigan, F.; Hammersley, R.; "The Effects of alcohol on performance," In: Smith, A. P.; Jones, D. M., eds; Handbook of Human Performance, New York, NY, Academic Press, c1992, p.73-126. [The authors explain methodological problems: measurement of baseline performance; use between subject- designs; use sufficient numbers of subjects (authors believe there should be more than 15 subjects); insure that subjects cannot tell when they are consuming alcohol; include placebo alcohol conditions in the design; and measure achieved blood or breath alcohol level; measure performance and BAL over time; show some agreement abut which measure of psychomotor performance are fundamental for alcohol research; more statistical sophistication should be employed in interpreting results; some study of the relevance to everyday live--"we need to know the extent to which people can and do control their dose and hence their impairment."]

Foster, Susan E.; Vaughan, Roger D.; Foster, William H.; Califano, Joseph A.; "Alcohol consumption and expenditures or underage drinking and adult excessive drinking," JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (2003), 289 (8): 989-995. The proportion of 12- to 20-year olds who drink was estimated to be 50.0% using data from the YRBA; the proportion of adults aged 21 ore older who drink was estimated to be 52.8% using data from the BRFSS. The estimated total number of drinks consumed per month was 4.21 billion; underage drinkers consumed 19.7% of this total. The amount of adult drinking that was excessive (>2 drinks per day) was 30.4%. Consumer expenditure on alcohol in the United States in 1999 was $116.2 billion; of that, $22.5 billion was attributed to underage drinking and $34.4 billion was attributed to adult excessive drinking. Conclusion: These data suggest that underage drinkers and adult excessive drinkers re responsible for 50.15 of all alcohol consumption and 48.9% of consumer expenditure.

Gengo, R. M.: Gagos, C.; Straley, C.; Manning, C.; "Pharmacodynamics of ethanol: effects of performance and judgment," JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY (1990), 30 (8): 748-754. (20 subjects' self rated degrees of impairment of various est. BAC (breath) were influenced by whether alcohol concentrations were rising or falling. Subjective impairment ratings were greater while alcohol concentrations were increasing compared to the same Est. BAC occurring during falling alcohol concentrations. Disparities between self rated degree of impairment and decrements in test performance were greatest 1.0 hour after peak Est. BAC and maximum decrements in test performance. The delay in subjects' ability to accurately rate their impairment relative to peak Est. BAC may be contributing factor to motorists choosing to drive while their performance is still impaired. "There was no difference in response to ethanol that could be demonstrated comparing performance during rising with performance during declining Est. BAC." P. 752. "Our data support the present assumptions by the medicolegal community that equal impairment of psychomotor function occurs regardless of increasing or decreasing ethanol concentration," p. 754.)

Gruenewald P. J ; Remer L.: "Changes in outlet densities affect violence rates", ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (2006), 30(7): 1184-93. " Lower median household income and greater percentages of minorities (African American, Hispanic, and Asian) were related to increased rates of violence. Ten percent increases in numbers of off-premise outlets and bars were related to 1.67 and 2.06% increases in violence rates across local and lagged spatial areas. Every 6 outlets accounted for 1 additional violent assault that resulted in at least 1 overnight stay at hospital. These effects increased with larger male populations, doubling with every 3% increase in percent males. Assault rates were most strongly related to median household incomes and minority populations within zip code areas. Controlling for changes in assault rates related to these measures, greater numbers of licensed alcohol retail establishments, especially bars and off-premise outlets, were related to rates of assault. Failures to regulate the growth in numbers of bars will increase rates of violence, especially in urban areas."

Hingson, R.; Heeren, T.; Jamanka, A; Howland, J.; "Age of drinking onset and unintentional injury involvement after drinking," JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, (2000), 284 (27): 1527-1533. Drinking onset at ages younger than 21 years is associated with having experienced alcohol-related injuries. One third of of deaths due to unintentional injury in the United States are estimated to be alcohol related. Strategies to delay the age persons begin drinking, such as the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years, have been found to reduce drinking, alcohol-related traffic deaths, and deaths from other unintentional injuries among persons younger than 21 years.

Hingson, R,; Hereen, T.; Zakocs, R.; "Age of drinking onset and involvement in physical fights after drinking." PEDIATRICS (2001), 108 (4): 872-877p. ("Persons who began drinking before age 14 were at least 3 times more likely than those who did not drink until they were over 21 to experience diagnosable alcohol dependence during their life and people who started drinking at an earlier age drink heavily with greater frequency during both adolescence and adulthood. Each year, of 11.1 million victims of violent assaults in the United States, 24% believed the perpetrator had been drinking. Roizen has estimated 37% of assault offenders, 60% of sexual offenders, 57% of men and 27% of women involved in marital violence, and 13% of child abusers had been drinking at the time of the event. Penanen reported 42% of violent crimes reported to the police involved alcohol. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 40% of persons convicted of homicide and 24% of victims had been drinking at the time of the event."

Hingson, R.; Howland, J.; "Alcohol, injury, and legal controls: some complex interactions," LAW, MEDICINE, AND HEALTH CARE (1989), 17 (1): 58-68. (The evidence that drinking is associated with increased risk for vehicular injury and death is substantial. Laboratory and field studies demonstrate that alcohol impairs sensory and motor skills required for safe driving.)

Hingson, R.; Heeren, T., Winter, M.; "Effect of Mane's 0.05% legal blood alcohol level for drivers with DWI convictions: driving while intoxicated," PUBLIC HEALTH REPORTS (1998), 113 (5): 440-7. (Significant decline in drivers with prior DWI convictions after Maine enacted a law lowering the legal blood alcohol (BAL) from 0.10% to 0.05% for people convicted of driving while intoxicated.)

Hingson, R.; Heeren, T.; Winter, M.; "Lowering state legal blood alcohol limits to 0.08%: the effects on fatal motor vehicle crashes," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH (1996), 86 (9): 1297-1299. States who have adopted the .08 BAC law experiences 16% and 18% relative post law declines in the proportions of fatal crashes involving fatally injured drivers whose blood alcohol levels were 0.08% or higher and 0.15% or higher.)

Hingson, R.; Heeren, T., Winter, M.; "Preventing impaired driving," ALCOHOL RESEARCH AND HEALTH (1999), 23 (1), 31-39. (Although moderate drinking does not necessarily increase a person's blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to the level at which driving is legally prohibited in the United States, any drinking can impair driving tasks. In addition to laws establishing lower legal BAC limits for drivers, legislative approaches for reducing alcohol-impaired driving include imposing sanctions for drinking and driving and restricting alcohol's availability.)

Hingson, R.; "Prevention of drinking and driving," ALCOHOL HEALTH AND RESEARCH WORLD (1996), 22, Sept.: 219-27. (Fourth, people who drive after heavy drinking (defined as five or more drinks in one sitting) are much more likely to engage in other risky driving behaviors, such as speeding,running red lights, making illegal turns, driving after other drug use, and failure to wear a safety belts. "For all groups of drivers, fatal crash involvement per miles driven increases in tenfold at BAC's of 0.05 to 0.09 percent, Zador, 1991."

"How effective are .08 drunk-driving laws?", CONSUMERS' RESEARCH MAGAZINE, August (1999), 82 (8: 26-29). (Alcohol is a significant factor in fatal motor vehicle crashes. A .08 BAC law can be a important component of a state's overall highway safety program, but a .08 BAC law alone in not a "silver bullet". Highway safety research shows that the best countermeasure against drunk driving is a combination of laws, sustained public education, and vigorous enforcement.)

Jones, A. W.; Wright, B. M.; and Jones, T. P.; "A Historical and experimental study of the breath/blood alcohol ratio," S. Israelstam and S. Lambert, eds., Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety, Proceedings of the sixth international conference on alcohol, drugs and traffic safety, Toronto, Canada, Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario, 1974, p.509-526.

Kappeler, V. E.; Del Carmen, R. V.; " Police civil liability for failure to arrest intoxicated drivers," JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE (1990), 18: 117-131.

Kennedy, B. P., Isaac, N. E.; Graham, J. D.; "The Role of heavy drinking in the risk of traffic fatalities," RISK ANALYSIS (1996), 16 (4): 565-569. (Male alcohol-involved fatally injured drivers are comprised mostly of heavy drinkers who may suffer from serious drinking problems or alcoholism. Successful interventions may require medical treatment as well as punitive criminal justice policies.)

Kennedy, R. A. Turnage, J. J.; Rugotzke, G. G.; Dunlap, W. P.; "Indexing cognitive tests to alcohol dosage and comparison to standardized field sobriety tests," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1994), 55: 615-628. [This suggests that while the two batteries (mental tests and standardized road tests) are measuring different aspects of the same thing.]

Manno, Barbara R, Manno, Joseph E.; "Epidemiologic basis or alcohol-induced psychomotor performance impairment (PMPI)," In: Garriott, James C., ed.; Medicolegal aspects of alcohol, 3rd ed. Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company, Inc., c1996, 526p.

Miller, T. R.; Lestina, D. C.; Spicer, R. S.; "Highway crash costs in the United States by driver age, blood alcohol level, victim age, and restraint use," ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION (1998), 30 (2): 137-150. (Notable findings are: (1) crash costs of novice drivers are high enough to yield preliminary benefit-cost ratios around 4-8 for a provisional licensing system that restricts driving after midnight and 11 for zero alcohol tolerance for young divers with violators receiving a 6-month suspension; (2) the cost to people other than the intoxicated driver per mile driven at BACs of 0.08-0.099% exceed the value of driver mobility; (3) the safety costs of drunk driving appear to exceed $5.80 per mile, compared with $2.50 per mile driven at BACs of 0.08-0.099%, and $0.11 per mile driven sober; (4) highway crashes cause an estimated 3.2% of U. S. medical spending, including more than 14% of medical spending for ages 15-24; (5) ignoring crash-involved occupants whose restraint use is unknown, the 13% of occupants who police reported were traveling unrestrained accounted for an estimated 42% of the crash costs; and (6) if these unrestrained occupants buckled up, the medical costs of crashes would decline by an estimated 18% [almost $4 billion annually] and comprehensive costs by 24%.)

Muller, A.; "Business recession, alcohol consumption, drinking and driving laws: impact on Oklahoma motor vehicle fatalities and fatal crashes," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE HEALTH (1989), 79: 1366-1370.

*Piquero, A.; Paternoster, R.; "An Application of Stafford and Warr's reconceptualization of deterrence to drinking and driving," THE JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN CRIME AND DELINQUENCY (1998), 35 (1): 3-39. (In a recent reconceptualization of Stafford and Warr (1993) deterrence doctrine, Piquero and Paternoster found that persons' expressed intentions to drink and drive are affected by personal and vicarious experiences and punishment and punishment avoidance.

Pishkin, V.; Lawrence, B. E.; Bourne, L. E.; "Cognitive and elctro-physiologic parameters during ascending and descending limbs of blood alcohol curve," ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH (1983), 7: 76-81. (40 men aged 21-30, and peak breath alcohol in the range of 0.08-0.10. Major findings were: cognitive performance was impaired by alcohol ingestion; autonomic arousal was significantly greater after alcohol than after placebo; number and amplitude of skin response were greater on the ascending than on the descending limb; the anticipated effects of failure on cognitive performance were ameliorated by alcohol; and differential effects of alcohol on the psychophysiological parameters were demonstrated.)

Rand, Michael R., Saboi, William J., Sinclair, Michael, Snyder, Howard N., "Alcohol and crime: data from 2002 to 2008, Bureau of Justice Statistics. http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=2313

Robertson, L. S.; " The Effects of minimum safety standards,publicized crash tests, seat belts, and alcohol," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH (1996), 86 (1): 31-33. (Minimum safety standards, crash worthiness improvements, seat belt use laws, and reduced alcohol use each contributed to a large reduction in passenger car occupant deaths.)

Ross, H. L.; Confronting drunk driving: social policy for saving lives, New Haven, CT. Yale University Press, 1992. The author argues that drunk driving cannot be controlled by punishments administered through the criminal justice system alone . Instead, Ross offers a range of practical solutions to the problem, combining criminal deterrence with suggestions that could reduce alcohol use, lessen automobile use in situations involving drinking and improve automobile safety.

Ruhm, Christopher J., "Alcohol policies and highway vehicle fatalities," JOURNAL OF HEALTH ECONOMICS (1996), 15 (4): 435-454. This study investigates the impact of beer taxes and a variety of alcohol-control policies on motor vehicle fatality rates. Special attention is paid to omitted variables biases resulting from failing to adequately control for grassroots efforts to reduce drunk driving, the enactment of other laws which simultaneously operate to reduce highway fatalities, and the economic conditions existing at the time the legislation is passes. In the preferred models, most of the regulations have little or no impact of traffic mortality. By contrast, higher beer taxes are associated with reduction in crash deaths and this results is relatively robust across specifications.  

Snortum, J. R.; Riva, P. R.; Berger, D. E.; Mangione, T. W.; "Police documentation of drunk-driving arrests: jury verdicts and guilty pleas as a function of quantity and quality of evidence", JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE (1990), 18: 99-116.

Stapleton, J. M.; Guthrie, S.; Linnoila, M.; "Effects of alcohol and other psycho tropic drugs on eye movements: relevance to traffic safety," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1986), 47: 426-432. (Effects of alcohol and other drugs on eye movements are reviewed.)

Quindlan, Anna, "The drug that pretends it isn't,"NEWSWEEK, 04/10/2000, Vol. 135 Issue 15, p88,
"And it is true; booze and beer are not the same as illegal drugs. They are worse. A policy-research group called Drug Strategies has produced a report that calls alcohol "America's most pervasive drug problem", and goes on to document the claim. Alcohol-related deaths outnumber deaths related to illegal drugs four to one. Alcohol is a factor in more than half of all domestic-violence and sexual-assault cases. Between accidents, health problems, crime and lost productivity, researchers estimate alcohol abuse costs the economy $167 billion a year. In 1995 four out of every ten people on probation said they were drinking when they committed a violent crime, while only one in ten admitted using illegal drugs.

Taberner, P. V.; "Pharmacokinetics of alcohol and the law," TIPS, 9: 47-48. (There is overwhelming evidence that alcohol intoxication is a major contributory factor in road traffic accidents. . .the principal source of error in estimating a previous BAC from a single time point is the assumption that negligible absorption occurs after the peak BAC had been attained (the peak BAC supposedly occurring within 30-60 min of creasing drinking). The laboratory studies that have confirmed the apparent validity of this model have tended to use fasted subjects who consume a know dose of alcohol within a very short time period.)

Thurman, Q.; "Drunk driving research and innovation . . .," SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH (1993), 22 (3): 245-264. (These data suggest that key components of decisions to drink and drive include the extent of the driver's behavioral impairment, the availability of drunk-driving alternatives, weather condition, the number of miles that have to be driven after drinking, the legal consequences of drunk driving (in terms of jail sentences and license revocations), the community response to drunk driving, where drinking occurs, fines that might be issued, the use of traffic roadblocks, and the driver's familiarity with roads that must be driven after a drinking event. The analysis of drunk driving experiences, suggesting that those persons most experienced with drunk driving tend to rate legal sanctions as more important in judgments to drinking and drive than those person who typically refrain from drunk driving.)

Voas, Robert B.; Tippets, A. Scott; Taylor, Eileen P.; "The Illinois .08 law: an evaluation," JOURNAL OF SAFETY RESEARCH (2002), 33: 73-80. "The proportion of all drinking drivers in fatal crashes was compared before versus after implementing the .08 law using time-series analysis to evaluate 12 years of fatal crash data for Illinois and five bordering states (includes Iowa, Wisconsin, Kentucky, Indiana, and Missouri). The results showed that the proportion of drinking drivers in fatal crashes decreased by 14% in Illinois and and increased by 3% in bordering states. The proportion of drinking drivers in fatal crashes in Illinois, though increasing since 1995, was sharply reduced after passage of the .08 law in 1997, saving more than 100 lives in 1998 and 1999 than would have without the .08 law.

Wieczorek, W.; Mirand, A.; Callahan, C.; "Perception of the risk of arrest for drinking and driving," CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND BEHAVIOR (1994), 21 (3): 312-24. (Examined the relationships among drinking measures, drinking and driving variables, and the perception of the risk of being arrested for driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI). Random-digit dialing, 453 drivers aged 18 and older who drank alcoholic beverages in the last 12 months. These results suggest that DWI prevention efforts need to be directed at specific groups and that for some groups, such as heavier drinkers (more than five drinks on one occasion), efforts other than deterrence are needed.)

Waller, P. F.; Steward, J. R.; Hansen, A. R.; Stutts, J. C.; Popkin, C. L.; Rodgeman, E. A.; "The Potentiating effects of alcohol on driver injury," JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (1986), 256 (1): 1461-1466. (Moreover, alcohol-related crashes are more likely to characterized by higher speed, rural location, late-night setting, and lack of safety belt use, all of which can markedly influence the outcome of the crash. The findings of this study, consistent with prior animal research, indicate that the relationship between alcohol and injuries is much more fundamental, that alcohol actually make a person more vulnerable to injury from any give traumatic insult.)

Yu, J; Williford, W. R.; "Drunk-driving recidivism: predicting factors from arrest context and case dispositions," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1995), 56 (1): 60-66. (Findings indicate that, after drinking-driving laws have been dramatically reinforced, an important remaining task is to swiftly and effectively convict drinking-driving offenders. In addition, a legal mechanism should be established to monitor multiple offenders and offenders who actively delay or manipulate court processing.)

Zador, P. L.; Lund, A. K.; Fields, M.; Weinberg, K.; "Fatal crash involvement and laws against alcohol-impaired driving," JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY (1989), Winter: 467-485. (Information on the effect of per se laws, RID, MADD to reduce drunk driving have made an effect. Crash data by time of day, day of week is included.)

updated 12/08/16