"How do you know when an alcoholic is lying? When his lips are moving!"

See also: Breath alcohol
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Alcohol and its effects on man has been studied and written about for centuries. This is by no means a complete bibliography.

Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, Monique; McAusian, Pam; "Alcohol and sexual assault," ALCOHOL, HEALTH AND RESEARCH WORLD, 25 (1). Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experiences sexual assault., including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol's effects on sexual aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol's effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers' understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies.

Abbey, Antonia; Buck, Philip O.; Zawacki, Tina; Saenz, Christopher; "Alcohol's effect on perceptions of a potential date rape," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (2003), 64: 669-677. Conclusions: Intoxicated participants perceived the woman in the vignette as being more sexually aroused and the man in the vignette as behaving more appropriately, and both of these variables were negatively related to ratings of how likely it was that forced sex would occur. These findings highlight the importance of mediating cues (intoxication and being in an isolated setting) in intoxicated decision making." Other negative outcomes such as pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases also need to be emphasized.

Abbey, Antonia; Saenz, Christopher; Buck, Philip O.; Parkhill, Michele R.; Hayman, Lenwood W., Jr.; "The effects of acute alcohol consumption, cognitive reserve, partner risk, and gender on sexual decision making," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (2006), 67: 113-121. Participants with less cognitive reserve made riskier decisions when intoxicated. Unexpectedly, although participants clearly perceived the high- and low-risk partners differently, this did not affect their willingness to have unprotected sex with this hypothetical partner. These findings demonstrate the need for sexually transmitted disease/HIV prevention programs that go beyond factual presentations and provide students with the skills they need to assess risk realistically and the need for programs with messages tailored for individuals with log cognitive skills.

The ABC's of BAC: a guide to understanding blood alcohol concentration and impairment
This document has been updated and is available as a PDF. Do a Google search on the ABS's of BAC

"Alcohol and minorities: an update," ALCOHOL ALERT, NIAAA. "African Americans show the lowest prevalence of lifetime, annual, monthly, daily, and heavy drinking, as well as the lowest frequency of being drunk. Hispanic adolescents have the highest annual prevalence of heavy drinking, followed by whites. Among all age and ethnic groups, men are more likely to drink than are women, and to consume large quantities in a single sitting. Heavy drinking is defined as five drinks on a single day at least once a month for adults and five drinks in a row at least once during the previous two weeks for adolescents. Another factor contributing to minority drinking patterns is acculturation, the partial or complete adoption of the beliefs and values of the prevailing social system. Through acculturation, the original drinking pattern of an ethnic group tends to change to resemble more closely that of the overall population. However, acculturation also is influenced by gender, religious beliefs, family traditions, personal expectations, and country of origin.

"Alcohol metabolism: an update", ALCOHOL ALERT (July, 2007), 72. "Research shows that alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are influenced by individual variations in alcohol metabolism, or the way in which alcohol is broken down and eliminated by the body. Alcohol metabolism is controlled by genetic factors, such as variations in the enzymes that break down alcohol; and environmental factors, such as the amount of alcohol an individual consumes and his or her overall nutrition. Differences in alcohol metabolism may put some people at greater risk for alcohol problems, whereas others may be at least somewhat protected from alcohol's harmful effects.

"This Alcohol Alert describes the basic process involved in the breakdown of alcohol, including how toxic byproducts of alcohol metabolism may lead to problems such as alcoholic liver disease, cancer, and pancreatitis. This Alert also describes populations who may be at particular risk for problems resulting from alcohol metabolism as well as people who may be genetically "protected" from these adverse effects"

Alcohol and highway safety 2001: a review of the state of knowledge, Chapter 2 alcohol's effect on people."

Abrams, D. B; Zwick, W. R.; Liepman, M. R.; Nirenberg, T. D.; Monroe, S. M.; Monti, P. M.; "Alcohol abusers' and social drinkers, response to alcohol-relevant and general situations," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1991), 52: 409-414. (Role-playing with alcoholics and social drinkers to understand what precipitates drinking and treatment implications.)

Agarwal, D. P., Goedde, H. W.; "Pharmacokinetics of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)," PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS (1990), 45: 69-83. (Review of literature.)

Alati, Rosa; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Najman, Jake M.; Williams, Gail M.; Bor, William; O'Callaghan, Michael; "Is there really a "J-shaped" curve in the association between alcohol consumption and symptoms of depression and anxiety? Findings from the Mater-University Study of Pregnancy and its outcomes", ADDICTION (2005), 100: 643-651. Less drinking equals less depression. Dr. Rosa Alti work showed that women who have more than 15 drinks a week have an increased risk of experiencing mental illness. In all three assessments, conducted when women ere aged in their 20s, 30s and 40s, showed those who drank six or more drinks per week were more likely to have symptoms of depression and anxiety than those drinking less. For women in their 20s and 40s the lowest rates of symptoms were of those who did not drink any alcohol, said Alti. The results also point to a varying relationship between alcohol and depression and anxiety over the course of a woman's life.

Albery, I. P.; Guppy, A,: "Drivers' differential perceptions of legal and safe driving consumption," ADDICTION (1995), 90: 245-54.

"Alcohol and tolerance." ALCOHOL ALERT (1995), 28 PH 356, April. (Explains the differences in functional tolerance, acute tolerance, environmental-dependent tolerance, learned tolerance, envrionmental-independent tolerance, metabolic tolerance, and tolerance and the predisposition to alcoholism.)

"Alcohol involvement in Fatal motor-vehicle crashes--United States," MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT, Centers for Disease Control, November 30, 2001, 1064-1065.

"Alcohol limits for drivers: a report on the effects of alcohol and expected institutional response to new limits: a Report to Congress," February, 1991. U. S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 107p. (No safe alcohol limit without impairment exists. Recommends BAC be lowered to .05.)

"Alcohol metabolism, " ALCOHOL ALERT, (1997), 35 PH371. (Explains how alcohol is metabolized by the body and factors affecting this metabolism.

"Alcohol-related impairment," ALCOHOL ALERT (1994), 25 PH 351, July. ["The brain's control of eye movements is highly vulnerable to alcohol. In driving, the eyes must focus briefly on important objects in the visual field ant track them as they (and the vehicle) move. Low to moderate BAC's (0.03 to 0.05 percent) interfere with voluntary eye movements, impairing the eye's ability to rapidly track a moving target. Steering is a complex psychomotor task in which alcohol effects on eye-to-hand reaction time are superimposed upon the visual effects described above. Significant impairment in steering ability may begin as low as approximately 0.035 percent BAC and rises as BAC increases. Research on the effects of alcohol on performance by both automobile and aircraft operators shows a narrowing of the attentional field beginning at approximately 0.04 percent BAC.]

"Alcohol, the brain and behavior," ALCOHOL RESEARCH & HEALTH (2000), 24 (1): 12-6. Considers alcohol's effects on the three levels of communication within the brain--synaptical level, systems level, intracellular level. One of the most powerful effects of alcohol is to reduce the pace of brain activity.

"Alcohol use," National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 2010. Alcohol results begin with Chapter 3.
Binge use - Five or more drinks on the same occasion at least once in the 30 days prior to survey (includes heavy use).
Heavy use - Five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least 5 different days in the past 30 days.

"Alcohol, violence, and aggression," ALCOHOL ALERT. 38, (October, 1997). Scientists and nonscientists alike have long recognized a two-way association between alcohol consumption and violent or aggressive behavior(1). Not only may alcohol consumption promote aggressiveness, but victimization may lead to excessive alcohol consumption. Violence may be defined as behavior that intentionally inflicts, or attempts to inflict physical harm. Violence falls within the broader category of aggression, which also includes behaviors that re threatening, hostile, or damaging in a nonphysical way (2). This ALCOHOL ALERT explores the association between alcohol consumption, violence, and aggression and the role of the brain in regulating behaviors. Understanding the nature of these associations is essential to breaking the cycle of alcohol misuse and violence.

al-Lanqawi, Y.; Moreland, T. A.; McEwen, J.; Halliday, F.; Durin, C. J.; Stevenson, I. H.; "Ethanol kinetics: extent of error in back extrapolation procedures," BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY (1991), 34 (4) : 316-321.

al-Lanqawi, T. A.; Moreland, T. A.; Ogg, G. D.; Tregaskis, B.; McEwen, J.; Stevenson, I. H.; "Ethanol pharmacokinetics--reproducibility in volunteer subjects," BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY (1991), 32 : 656.

Allen, M. J.; Abrams, B. W.; Ginsburg, A. P.; Weintraub, L.; Forensic aspects of vision and highway safety, Boca Raton, Florida, Lawyers and Judges Publishing Company, 1996, pp. 269-271. (As soon as you start to drink, your blood alcohol concentrations, BAC, starts to rise. Driving impairment increases directly with BAC level. Goes on to quote Garriott about color and glare recovery, Brecher about binocular coordination, Moskowitz and visual tracking, and Newman and visual acuity.)

Alobaidi, T. A.; Hill, D. W.; Payne, J. P.; "Significance of variation in blood: breath partition coefficient of alcohol." BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL (1976), 2 (6050):1479-81, Dec, 18.

Ammon, E.; Schafer, C.; Hofmann, U.; Klotz, U.; "Disposition and first-pass metabolism of ethanol in humans: is it gastric or hepatic and does it depend on gender?" CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY THERAPY (1996), 59: 503-13. (Used infusion of alcohol and 12 subjects.)

Arstein-Kerslake, G. W.; " A Confidence interval approach to the development of blood alcohol concentration charts,: ALCOHOL, DRUGS, AND DRIVING, 2 (1): 9-15. (Uses Dubowski Breath alcohol data.)

Andreasson, R.; Jones, A. W.; "Historical anecdote related to chemical tests for intoxication (letter to the editor)," JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY (1996), 20: 207-8.

Andreasson, R.; Jones, A. W.; The Life and work of Erik M. P. Widmark," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF FORENSIC MEDICINE AND PATHOLOGY (1996), 17 (3): 177-190.

Archer, L.; Grant, B. F.; Dawson, D. A.; "What if Americans drank less? The potential effect on the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH (1995), 85 (1): 61-6. (The results demonstrated that restricting drinking to the maximum levels under the existing and the modified guidelines should reduce the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence by 14.2% and 47.1% respectively in the adult US general population. Moderate drinking levels are defined as 2 drinks for males and one drink for females per day and consuming five or more drinks on any one occasion is associated with an increased risk of alcohol-related problems.)

Attwood, D. A.; William, R. D.; Madill, H. E.; "Effects of moderate blood alcohol concentrations on closed-course driving performance," JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL (1980), 41 (7): 623-34. (The results of this experiment, 6 male subjects and breath alcohol, suggest moderate levels of alcohol affect the driving tasks to the extent that performance differences between sober and intoxicated drivers can be measured. Considering each of the derived performance measures individually, driver behavior can be summarized as erratic under the effects of alcohol. Increased variability in lane position after alcohol, and been demonstrated by Allen, Huntley and Perrine, and Sugarman during course-negotiation tasks. Moreover, Belt detected a significant positive correlation between velocity variance and alcohol in the open-road driving portion of live highway experiments of BAC up to about 0.08%.)

Avant, L. L. "Alcohol impairs visual presence/absence detection more for females than for males," PERCEPTION AND PSYCHOPHYSICS (1990), 48 (3): 285-290. (90 male and female subjects, Breath alcohol, fasted given 3 levels of alcohol 0.0%, 0.5%, or 1.0%. Alcohol produced higher blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels, and higher detection threshold durations, for females than for males. These results indicate that alcohol influences precortical visual processing and that the influence is greater for females than for males. The higher bioavailability of alcohol in women is likely due to less gastric oxidation of ethanol in women than in men.)


updated 12/06/16